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Sedimentology and Petroleum Geology


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Table of Contents

1. Introduction to Sedimentology and Petroleum Geology.- 2. Textures.- Grain Size.- Presentation of Grain-Size Distribution Data.- Significance of Grain-Size Parameters.- Grain Shape.- 3. Sediment Transport.- A Little About Hydrodynamics.- Flow in Rivers and Channels.- Bed Forms.- Different Types of Sediment Transport.- 4. Description of Sedimentary Rocks and Facies.- Layering and Lamination.- Current Ripples and Cross-Bedding.- Erosion Structures on the Underside of Sand Beds (Sole Structures).- Structures on the Upper Surface of Beds.- Deformation Structures.- Concretions.- Trace Fossils.- 5. Sedimentary Facies.- Facies Analysis.- Alluvial Fans.- The Water Budget.- Glacial Sediments.- Desert.- Lacustrine Deposits.- River Deposits.- Delta Sedimentation.- River-Dominated Deltas (Mississippi Type).- Stability in a Delta.- Tide-Dominated Deltas.- Wave-Dominated Deltas.- Coastal Sedimentation Outside Deltas.- The Shore Zone.- Prograding Beach and Barrier Sequences.- Barrier Islands.- Tidal Sedimentation.- Shallow Marine Shelves.- Continental Slopes.- Submarine Canyons.- Sedimentation Along Island Arcs and Submarine Trenches.- 6. Chemical and Mineralogical Factors Which Influence Sedimentological Processes.- Ionic Potential.- Hydrolysates.- Redox Potentials.- pH.- Eh-pH Diagrams.- Coefficients of Distribution.- Isotopes.- Clay Minerals.- 7. Weathering and Geochemical Processes.- Mechanical Weathering.- Biological Weathering.- Chemical Weathering.- Weathering Profiles (Soil Profiles).- Distribution of Clay Minerals and Other Authigenic Minerals as a Function of Erosion and Weathering.- Sandstones.- Geochemical Processes in the Ocean.- Circulation of Water in the Oceans.- Clastic Sedimentation in the Oceans.- 8. Carbonate Sediments.- Carbonate-CO2 Systems in the Sea.- Geochemistry of Carbonate Minerals.- Classification of Carbonate Rocks.- Fossils.- Modern Carbonate Sedimentation Environments.- Sedimentary Facies.- Reefs.- The Role of Algae in Carbonate Sedimentation.- Coccolithophores.- Pelagic Carbonate Deposits.- Carbonate Diagenesis.- Lithification of Carbonate Sediments.- Dolomitisation.- 9. Other Biogenic and Chemical Sediments.- Silica (SiO2) Deposits.- Evaporites.- The Sabkha Model.- Evaporites in Lakes and Inland Seas.- Evaporation of Groundwater.- The Stability of Gypsum and Anhydrite During Diagenesis.- Iron- and Manganese-Rich Sediments.- Phosphorite Deposits.- 10. Stratigraphy.- Lithostratigraphy.- Biostratigraphy.- Time Stratigraphy.- The Relationship Between Lithostratigraphy, Biostratigraphy and Chronostratigraphy.- Palaeomagnetism and Magnetic Stratigraphy.- Radiometric Age-Dating Methods.- Dynamic Stratigraphy.- 11. Seismic Stratigraphy and Basin Analysis.- Interpretation of Lithology and Sedimentary Facies by Means of Seismic Profiles.- Filling of Sedimentary Basins.- Tectonic Boundaries.- Changes in Sea Level.- Geothermal Gradients in Sedimentary Basins.- Sedimentation and Isostatic Equilibrium.- Fracturing and Subsidence of the Continental Crust (Rifting).- Subsidence Along Passive Margins.- Subduction Zones.- 12. Diagenesis in Clastic Sediments.- Diagenetic Processes in Sandstones.- 13. Petroleum Geology.- How Petroleum is Formed in Source Rocks, Migrates, and Accumulates in Reservoir Rocks.- History.- Formation of Petroleum - Production of Organic Matter.- Early Diagenesis of Organic Matter.- Kerogen.- Composition of Petroleum.- Migration of Petroleum.- Biodegradation.- Permeability and Porosity.- Capillary Pressure.- Osmosis.- Hydrocarbon Traps.- Drilling for Oil.- Composition of Porewater in an Oil Field.- Formation of Reservoir Rocks.- Carbonate Reservoirs.- 14. Well Logs.- Electric Logs.- Radioactive Logs.- Density Logs.- Sonic Logs or Acoustic Logs.- Dipmeter Logs.- Temperature Logs.- Caliper Logs.- Interpretation of Environment of Deposition by Means of Well Logs.- 15. Plate Tectonics and Oil Prospecting.- Basins Formed During Diverging Plate Movements.- Conservative Plate Boundaries.- 16. Production Geology.- Reservoir Energy.- Enhanced Oil Recovery Methods (Tertiary Oil Recovery).

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