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Signal and Power Integrity - Simplified
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Table of Contents

Preface to the Third Edition xix Preface to the Second Edition xxi Preface to the First Edition xxiii Chapter 1 Signal Integrity Is in Your Future 1 1.1 What Are Signal Integrity, Power Integrity, and Electromagnetic Compatibility? 3 1.2 Signal-Integrity Effects on One Net 7 1.3 Cross Talk 11 1.4 Rail-Collapse Noise 14 1.5 Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) 17 1.6 Two Important Signal-Integrity Generalizations 19 1.7 Trends in Electronic Products 20 1.8 The Need for a New Design Methodology 26 1.9 A New Product Design Methodology 27 1.10 Simulations 29 1.11 Modeling and Models 34 1.12 Creating Circuit Models from Calculation 36 1.13 Three Types of Measurements 42 1.14 The Role of Measurements 45 1.15 The Bottom Line 48 Review Questions 50 Chapter 2 Time and Frequency Domains 51 2.1 The Time Domain 52 2.2 Sine Waves in the Frequency Domain 54 2.3 Shorter Time to a Solution in the Frequency Domain 56 2.4 Sine-Wave Features 58 2.5 The Fourier Transform 60 2.6 The Spectrum of a Repetitive Signal 62 2.7 The Spectrum of an Ideal Square Wave 64 2.8 From the Frequency Domain to the Time Domain 66 2.9 Effect of Bandwidth on Rise Time 68 2.10 Bandwidth and Rise Time 72 2.11 What Does Significant Mean? 73 2.12 Bandwidth of Real Signals 77 2.13 Bandwidth and Clock Frequency 78 2.14 Bandwidth of a Measurement 80 2.15 Bandwidth of a Model 83 2.16 Bandwidth of an Interconnect 85 2.17 The Bottom Line 89 Review Questions 90 Chapter 3 Impedance and Electrical Models 93 3.1 Describing Signal-Integrity Solutions in Terms of Impedance 94 3.2 What Is Impedance? 97 3.3 Real Versus Ideal Circuit Elements 99 3.4 Impedance of an Ideal Resistor in the Time Domain 102 3.5 Impedance of an Ideal Capacitor in the Time Domain 103 3.6 Impedance of an Ideal Inductor in the Time Domain 107 3.7 Impedance in the Frequency Domain 109 3.8 Equivalent Electrical Circuit Models 115 3.9 Circuit Theory and SPICE 117 3.10 Introduction to Measurement-Based Modeling 121 3.11 The Bottom Line 126 Review Questions 128 Chapter 4 The Physical Basis of Resistance 131 4.1 Translating Physical Design into Electrical Performance 132 4.2 The Only Good Approximation for the Resistance of Interconnects 133 4.3 Bulk Resistivity 136 4.4 Resistance per Length 138 4.5 Sheet Resistance 139 4.6 The Bottom Line 143 Review Questions 145 Chapter 5 The Physical Basis of Capacitance 147 5.1 Current Flow in Capacitors 149 5.2 The Capacitance of a Sphere 150 5.3 Parallel Plate Approximation 152 5.4 Dielectric Constant 153 5.5 Power and Ground Planes and Decoupling Capacitance 156 5.6 Capacitance per Length 159 5.7 2D Field Solvers 165 5.8 Effective Dielectric Constant 168 5.9 The Bottom Line 172 Review Questions 173 Chapter 6 The Physical Basis of Inductance 175 6.1 What Is Inductance? 175 6.2 Inductance Principle 1: There Are Circular Rings of Magnetic-Field Lines Around All Currents 176 6.3 Inductance Principle 2: Inductance Is the Number of Webers of Field Line Rings Around a Conductor per Amp of Current Through It 179 6.4 Self-Inductance and Mutual Inductance 181 6.5 Inductance Principle 3: When the Number of Field Line Rings Around a Conductor Changes, There Will Be a Voltage Induced Across the Ends of the Conductor 184 6.6 Partial Inductance 187 6.7 Effective, Total, or Net Inductance and Ground Bounce 193 6.8 Loop Self- and Mutual Inductance 199 6.9 The Power Distribution Network (PDN) and Loop Inductance 204 6.10 Loop Inductance per Square of Planes 210 6.11 Loop Inductance of Planes and Via Contacts 211 6.12 Loop Inductance of Planes with a Field of Clearance Holes 214 6.13 Loop Mutual Inductance 216 6.14 Equivalent Inductance of Multiple Inductors 216 6.15 Summary of Inductance 219 6.16 Current Distributions and Skin Depth 220 6.17 High-Permeability Materials 229 6.18 Eddy Currents 232 6.19 The Bottom Line 235 Review Questions 237 Chapter 7 The Physical Basis of Transmission Lines 239 7.1 Forget the Word Ground 240 7.2 The Signal 242 7.3 Uniform Transmission Lines 243 7.4 The Speed of Electrons in Copper 245 7.5 The Speed of a Signal in a Transmission Line 247 7.6 Spatial Extent of the Leading Edge 251 7.7 "Be the Signal" 252 7.8 The Instantaneous Impedance of a Transmission Line 256 7.9 Characteristic Impedance and Controlled Impedance 259 7.10 Famous Characteristic Impedances 262 7.11 The Impedance of a Transmission Line 266 7.12 Driving a Transmission Line 271 7.13 Return Paths 274 7.14 When Return Paths Switch Reference Planes 278 7.15 A First-Order Model of a Transmission Line 291 7.16 Calculating Characteristic Impedance with Approximations 297 7.17 Calculating the Characteristic Impedance with a 2D Field Solver 300 7.18 An n-Section Lumped-Circuit Model 306 7.19 Frequency Variation of the Characteristic Impedance 314 7.20 The Bottom Line 316 Review Questions 318 Chapter 8 Transmission Lines and Reflections 321 8.1 Reflections at Impedance Changes 323 8.2 Why Are There Reflections? 324 8.3 Reflections from Resistive Loads 328 8.4 Source Impedance 331 8.5 Bounce Diagrams 333 8.6 Simulating Reflected Waveforms 335 8.7 Measuring Reflections with a TDR 337 8.8 Transmission Lines and Unintentional Discontinuities 340 8.9 When to Terminate 343 8.10 The Most Common Termination Strategy for Point-to-Point Topology 345 8.11 Reflections from Short Series Transmission Lines 348 8.12 Reflections from Short-Stub Transmission Lines 351 8.13 Reflections from Capacitive End Terminations 353 8.14 Reflections from Capacitive Loads in the Middle of a Trace 356 8.15 Capacitive Delay Adders 359 8.16 Effects of Corners and Vias 361 8.17 Loaded Lines 367 8.18 Reflections from Inductive Discontinuities 370 8.19 Compensation 375 8.20 The Bottom Line 377 Review Questions 379 Chapter 9 Lossy Lines, Rise-Time Degradation, and Material Properties 381 9.1 Why Worry About Lossy Lines? 382 9.2 Losses in Transmission Lines 385 9.3 Sources of Loss: Conductor Resistance and Skin Depth 387 9.4 Sources of Loss: The Dielectric 392 9.5 Dissipation Factor 396 9.6 The Real Meaning of Dissipation Factor 399 9.7 Modeling Lossy Transmission Lines 405 9.8 Characteristic Impedance of a Lossy Transmission Line 413 9.9 Signal Velocity in a Lossy Transmission Line 415 9.10 Attenuation and dB 417 9.11 Attenuation in Lossy Lines 423 9.12 Measured Properties of a Lossy Line in the Frequency Domain 433 9.13 The Bandwidth of an Interconnect 438 9.14 Time-Domain Behavior of Lossy Lines 445 9.15 Improving the Eye Diagram of a Transmission Line 448 9.16 How Much Attenuation Is Too Much? 450 9.17 The Bottom Line 452 Review Questions 454 Chapter 10 Cross Talk in Transmission Lines 457 10.1 Superposition 459 10.2 Origin of Coupling: Capacitance and Inductance 460 10.3 Cross Talk in Transmission Lines: NEXT and FEXT 462 10.4 Describing Cross Talk 464 10.5 The SPICE Capacitance Matrix 467 10.6 The Maxwell Capacitance Matrix and 2D Field Solvers 471 10.7 The Inductance Matrix 478 10.8 Cross Talk in Uniform Transmission Lines and Saturation Length 479 10.9 Capacitively Coupled Currents 485 10.10 Inductively Coupled Currents 489 10.11 Near-End Cross Talk 492 10.12 Far-End Cross Talk 496 10.13 Decreasing Far-End Cross Talk 503 10.14 Simulating Cross Talk 505 10.15 Guard Traces 512 10.16 Cross Talk and Dielectric Constant 519 10.17 Cross Talk and Timing 521 10.18 Switching Noise 524 10.19 Summary of Reducing Cross Talk 528 10.20 The Bottom Line 528 Review Questions 530 Chapter 11 Differential Pairs and Differential Impedance 533 11.1 Differential Signaling 534 11.2 A Differential Pair 538 11.3 Differential Impedance with No Coupling 541 11.4 The Impact from Coupling 545 11.5 Calculating Differential Impedance 552 11.6 The Return-Current Distribution in a Differential Pair 555 11.7 Odd and Even Modes 561 11.8 Differential Impedance and Odd-Mode Impedance 566 11.9 Common Impedance and Even-Mode Impedance 567 11.10 Differential and Common Signals and Odd- and Even-Mode Voltage Components 570 11.11 Velocity of Each Mode and Far-End Cross Talk 573 11.12 Ideal Coupled Transmission-Line Model or an Ideal Differential Pair 579 11.13 Measuring Even- and Odd-Mode Impedance 580 11.14 Terminating Differential and Common Signals 583 11.15 Conversion of Differential to Common Signals 590 11.16 EMI and Common Signals 595 11.17 Cross Talk in Differential Pairs 601 11.18 Crossing a Gap in the Return Path 604 11.19 To Tightly Couple or Not to Tightly Couple 607 11.20 Calculating Odd and Even Modes from Capacitance- and Inductance-Matrix Elements 608 11.21 The Characteristic Impedance Matrix 612 11.22 The Bottom Line 615 Review Questions 617 Chapter 12 S-Parameters for Signal-Integrity Applications 619 12.1 S-Parameters, the New Universal Metric 619 12.2 What Are S-Parameters? 621 12.3 Basic S-Parameter Formalism 623 12.4 S-Parameter Matrix Elements 627 12.5 Introducing the Return and Insertion Loss 631 12.6 A Transparent Interconnect 636 12.7 Changing the Port Impedance 639 12.8 The Phase of S21 for a Uniform 50-Ohm Transmission Line 641 12.9 The Magnitude of S21 for a Uniform Transmission Line 644 12.10 Coupling to Other Transmission Lines 649 12.11 Insertion Loss for Non-50-Ohm Transmission Lines 655 12.12 Data-Mining S-Parameters 661 12.13 Single-Ended and Differential S-Parameters 663 12.14 Differential Insertion Loss 668 12.15 The Mode Conversion Terms 672 12.16 Converting to Mixed-Mode S-Parameters 675 12.17 Time and Frequency Domains 676 12.18 The Bottom Line 681 Review Questions 683 Chapter 13 The Power Distribution Network (PDN) 685 13.1 The Problem 686 13.2 The Root Cause 688 13.3 The Most Important Design Guidelines for the PDN 690 13.4 Establishing the Target Impedance Is Hard 691 13.5 Every Product Has a Unique PDN Requirement 700 13.6 Engineering the PDN 701 13.7 The VRM 703 13.8 Simulating Impedance with SPICE 706 13.9 On-Die Capacitance 707 13.10 The Package Barrier 710 13.11 The PDN with No Decoupling Capacitors 715 13.12 The MLCC Capacitor 717 13.13 The Equivalent Series Inductance 721 13.14 Approximating Loop Inductance 724 13.15 Optimizing the Mounting of Capacitors 733 13.16 Combining Capacitors in Parallel 740 13.17 Engineering a Reduced Parallel Resonant Peak by Adding More Capacitors 746 13.18 Selecting Capacitor Values 748 13.19 Estimating the Number of Capacitors Needed 754 13.20 How Much Does a nH Cost? 756 13.21 Quantity or Specific Values? 760 13.22 Sculpting the Impedance Profiles: The Frequency-Domain Target Impedance Method (FDTIM) 766 13.23 When Every pH Counts 772 13.24 Location, Location, Location 777 13.25 When Spreading Inductance Is the Limitation 781 13.26 The Chip View 785 13.27 Bringing It All Together 789 13.28 The Bottom Line 792 Review Questions 794 Appendix A 100+ General Design Guidelines to Minimize Signal-Integrity Problems 797 Appendix B 100 Collected Rules of Thumb to Help Estimate Signal-Integrity Effects 805 Appendix C Selected References 815 Appendix D Review Questions and Answers 819 Index 931

About the Author

Eric Bogatin received his B.S. in Physics from MIT in 1976 and his M.S. and Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Arizona in Tucson in 1980. For more than 30 years he has been active in the fields of signal integrity and interconnect design. He worked in senior engineering and management roles at AT&T Bell Labs, Raychem Corp, Sun Microsystems, Interconnect Devices Inc., and Teledyne LeCroy. In 2011, his company, Bogatin Enterprises, was acquired by Teledyne LeCroy. Eric currently is a Signal Integrity Evangelist with Teledyne LeCroy, where he creates and presents educational materials related to new applications for high-performance scopes. Eric turns complexity into practical design and measurement principles, leveraging analysis techniques and measurement tools. Since 2012, he has been an adjunct professor at the University of Colorado in Boulder, teaching graduate courses in signal integrity, interconnect design, and PCB design. He has written regular monthly columns for PCD&F Magazine, Semiconductor International, Electronic Packaging and Production, Altera Corporation, Mentor Graphics Corporation, EDN, and EE Times. He is currently the editor of the Signal Integrity Journal (www.SignalIntegrityJournal.com ) Eric is a prolific author with more than 300 publications, many posted on his website, www.beTheSignal.com, for download. He regularly presents at DesignCon, the IEEE EMC Symposium, EDI con, and at IPC's Designer Council events. He is the coauthor of the popular Prentice Hall book, Principles of Power Integrity for PDN Design - Simplified, along with Larry Smith. He was the recipient of the 2016 Engineer of the Year Award from DesignCon. He can be reached at eric@beTheSignal.com.

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