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Society: The Basics


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Table of Contents

IN THIS SECTION:1. BRIEF2. COMPREHENSIVE BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1: Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and MethodChapter 2: CultureChapter 3: Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age Chapter 4: Social Interaction in Everyday LifeChapter 5: Groups and OrganizationsChapter 6: Sexuality and Society Chapter 7: DevianceChapter 8: Social StratificationChapter 9: Global StratificationChapter 10: Gender Stratification Chapter 11: Race and Ethnicity Chapter 12: Economics and PoliticsChapter 13: Family and ReligionChapter 14: Education, Health, and MedicineChapter 15: Population, Urbanization, and EnvironmentChapter 16: Social Change: Modern and Postmodern Societies COMPREHENSIVE TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1: Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and MethodThe Sociological Perspective Seeing the General in the Particular Seeing the Strange in the Familiar Seeing Society in Our Everyday Lives Seeing Sociologically: Marginality and CrisisThe Importance of a Global PerspectiveApplying the Sociological Perspective Sociology and Public Policy Sociology and Personal Growth Careers: The "Sociology Advantage"The Origins of Sociology Social Change and Sociology Science and SociologySociological Theory Seeing Sociology in the News "In Poor Economy, Laid-off Workers Flocking to Community Colleges" The Structural-Functional Approach The Social-Conflict Approach Feminism and the Gender-Conflict Approach The Race-Conflict Approach The Symbolic-Interaction ApproachThree Ways to Do Sociology Positivist Sociology Interpretive Sociology Critical SociologyResearch Orientations and TheoryGender and ResearchResearch EthicsResearch Methods Testing a Hypothesis: The Experiment Asking Questions: Survey Research In the Field: Participant Observation Using Available Data: Existing SourcesPutting It All Together: Ten Steps in Sociological ResearchSeeing Sociology in Everyday LifeMaking the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 2: CultureWhat Is Culture? Culture and Human Intelligence How Many Cultures?The Elements of Culture Symbols Language Values and Beliefs Norms Ideal and Real CultureTechnology and Culture Hunting and Gathering Horticulture and Pastoralism Agriculture Industry Postindustrial Information TechnologyCultural Diversity High Culture and Popular Culture Subculture Multiculturalism Counterculture Cultural Change Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism Seeing Sociology in the News "US Troops Train for Both Combat and Conversation" A Global Culture?Theoretical Analysis of Culture The Functions of Culture: Structural-Functional Analysis Inequality and Culture: Social-Conflict Analysis Evolution and Culture: SociobiologyCulture and Human FreedomSeeing Sociology in Everyday LifeMaking the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 3: Socialization: From Infancy to Old AgeSocial Experience: The Key to Our Humanity Human Development: Nature and Nurture Social IsolationUnderstanding Socialization Sigmund Freuds's Elements of Personality Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development Lawrence Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development Carol Gilligan's Theory of Gender and Moral Development George Herbert Mead's Theory of the Social Self Erik H. Erikson's Eight Stages of DevelopmentAgents of Socialization The Family The School The Peer Group The Mass Media Seeing Sociology in the News "The Children of Cyberspace: Old Fogies by Their Twenties"Socialization and the Life Course Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Old Age Death and Dying The Life Course: Patterns and VariationsResocialization: Total InstitutionsSeeing Sociology in Everyday LifeMaking the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 4: Social Interaction in Everyday LifeSocial Structure: A Guide to Everyday LivingStatus Ascribed and Achieved Status Master StatusRole Role Conflict and Role Strain Role ExitThe Social Construction of Reality Seeing Sociology in the News "For Teenagers, Hello Means 'How about a Hug?'" "Street Smarts" The Thomas Theorem Ethnomethodology Reality Building: Class and CultureDramaturgical Analysis: The "Presentation of Self" Performances Nonverbal Communication Gender Performances Idealization Embarrassment and TactInteraction in Everyday Life: Three Applications Emotions: The Social Construction of Feeling Language: The Social Construction of Gender Reality Play: The Social Construction of HumorSeeing Sociology in Everyday LifeMaking the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 5: Groups and OrganizationsSocial Groups Primary and Secondary Groups Group Leadership Group Conformity Reference Groups In-Groups and Out-Groups Group Size Social Diversity: Race, Class, and Gender NetworksFormal Organizations Types of Organizations Origins of Formal Organizations Characteristics of Bureaucracy Organizational Environment The Informal Side of Bureaucracy Problems of Bureaucracy Seeing Sociology in the News "Professor Suspended after Joke about Killing Students on Facebook"The Evolution of Formal Organizations Scientific Management The First Challenge: Race and Gender The Second Challenge: The Japanese Work Organization The Third Challenge: The Changing Nature of Work The "McDonaldization" of SocietyThe Future of Organizations: Opposing TrendsSeeing Sociology in Everyday LifeMaking the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 6: Sexuality and SocietyUnderstanding Sexuality Sex: A Biological Issue Sex and the Body Sex: A Cultural Issue The Incest TabooSexual Attitudes in the United States The Sexual Revolution The Sexual Counterrevolution Premarital Sex Sex Between Adults Extramarital Sex Sex over the Life CourseSexual Orientation What Gives Us a Sexual Orientation? How Many Gay People Are There? The Gay Rights Movement Seeing Sociology in the News "Making a Prom Date Changes His Fate"Sexual Issues and Controversies Teen Pregnancy Pornography Prostitution Sexual Violence: Rape and Date RapeTheoretical Analysis of Sexuality Structural-Functional Analysis Symbolic-Interaction Analysis Social-Conflict and Feminist AnalysisSeeing Sociology in Everyday LifeMaking the Grade Visual Summary Sample Test Questions Chapter 7: DevianceWhat is Deviance? Social Control The Biological Context Personality Factors The Social Foundation of DevianceThe Functions of Deviance: Structural-Functional Analysis Durkheim's Basic Insight Merton's Strain Theory Deviant SubculturesLabeling Deviance: Symbolic-Interaction Analysis Seeing Sociology in the News "Ex-Employees Turn to Cyber Crime after Layoffs" Labeling Theory The Medicalization of Deviance Sutherland's Differential Association Theory Hirschi's Control TheoryDeviance and Inequality: Social-Conflict Analysis Deviance and Power Deviance and Capitalism White-Collar Crime Organized CrimeDeviance, Race, and Gender Hate Crimes The Feminist Perspective: Deviance and GenderCrime Types of Crime Criminal Statistics The Street Criminal: A Profile Crime in Global PerspectiveThe U.S. Criminal Justice System Due Process Police Courts Punishment The Death Penalty Community-Based CorrectionsSeeing Sociology in Everyday LifeMaking the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 8: Social StratificationWhat is Social Stratification?Caste and Class Systems The Caste System The Class System Caste and Class: The United Kingdom Classless Societies? The Former Soviet Union China: Emerging Social Classes Ideology: The Power Behind StratificationThe Functions of Social Stratification The Davis-Moore ThesisStratification and Conflict Karl Marx: Class Conflict Why No Marxist Revolution? Max Weber: Class, Status, and PowerStratification and InteractionStratification and Technology: A Global Perspective Hunting and Gathering Societies Horticultural, Pastoral, and Agrarian Societies Industrial Societies The Kuznets CurveInequality in the United States Income, Wealth, and Power Occupational Prestige Schooling Ancestry, Race, and GenderSocial Classes in the United States The Upper Class The Middle Class The Working Class The Lower ClassThe Difference Class Makes Health Values and Attitudes Politics Family and GenderSocial Mobility Myth versus Reality Mobility by Income Level Mobility: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender Mobility and Marriage The American Dream: Still a Reality? Seeing Sociology in the News "Waking Up from American Dreams" The Global Economy and U.S. Class StructurePoverty in the United States The Extent of Poverty Who Are the Poor? Explaining Poverty The Working Poor Homelessness Class, Welfare, Politics, and ValuesSeeing Sociology in Everyday LifeMaking the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 9: Global StratificationGlobal Stratification: An Overview A World about Terminology High-Income Countries Middle-Income Countries Low-Income CountriesGlobal Wealth and Poverty The Severity of Poverty The Extent of Poverty Poverty and Children Seeing Sociology in the News "The Child Catchers" Poverty and Women Slavery Explanations of Global PovertyGlobal Stratification: Theoretical Analysis Modernization Theory Dependency TheoryGlobal Stratification: Looking AheadSeeing Sociology in Everyday LifeMaking the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 10: Gender StratificationGender and Inequality Male-Female Differences Gender in Global Perspective Patriarchy and SexismGender and Socialization Gender and the Family Gender and the Peer Group Gender and Schooling Gender and the Mass MediaGender and Social Stratification Working Women and Men Seeing Sociology in the News "Women on Board: Breaking the 'Bamboo Ceiling'" Gender, Income, and Wealth Housework: Women's "Second Shift" Gender and Education Gender and Politics Gender and the Military Are Women a Minority? Minority Women: Intersection Theory Violence against Women Violence against Men Sexual Harassment PornographyTheoretical Analysis of Gender Structural-Functional Analysis Social-Conflict AnalysisFeminism Basic Feminist Ideas Types of Feminism Opposition to FeminismGender: Looking AheadSeeing Sociology in Everyday LifeMaking the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 11: Race and Ethnicity Race Ethnicity MinoritiesPrejudice and Stereotypes Measuring Prejudice: The Social Distance Scale Racism Theories of PrejudiceDiscrimination Seeing Sociology in the News "In Job Hunt, College Degree Can't Close Racial Gap" Institutional Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice and Discrimination: The Vicious CircleMajority and Minority: Patterns of Interaction Pluralism Assimilation Segregation GenocideRace and Ethnicity in the United States Native Americans White Anglo-Saxon Protestants African Americans Asian Americans Hispanic Americans/Latinos Arab Americans White Ethnic AmericansRace and Ethnicity: Looking AheadSeeing Sociology in Everyday LifeMaking the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 12: Economics and PoliticsThe Economy: Historical Overview The Agricultural Revolution The Industrial Revolution The Information Revolution and Postindustrial Society Sectors of the Economy The Global EconomyEconomic Systems: Paths to Justice Capitalism Socialism Welfare Capitalism and State Capitalism Relative Advantages of Capitalism and Socialism Changes in Socialist and Capitalist CountriesWork in the Postindustrial U.S. Economy The Changing Workplace Labor Unions Professions Self-Employment Unemployment and Underemployment Workplace Diversity: Race and Gender New Information Technology and WorkCorporation Economic Concentration Conglomerates and Corporate Linkages Corporation: Are They Competitive? Corporations and the Global EconomyThe Economy: Looking AheadPolitics: Historical OverviewPolitics in Global Perspective Monarchy Democracy Authoritarianism Totalitarianism A Global Political System?Politics in the United States U.S. Culture and the Rise of the Welfare State The Political Spectrum Party Identification Special-Interest Groups Voter Apathy Should Convicted Criminals Vote?Theoretical Analysis of Power in Society The Pluralist Mode: The People Rule The Power-Elite Model: A Few People Rule The Marxist Model: The System Is BiasedPower beyond the Rules Revolution TerrorismWar and Peace The Causes of War Social Class and the Military Seeing Sociology in the News "GI Jane Breaks the Combat Barrier" Is Terrorism a New Kind of War? The Costs and Causes of Militarism Nuclear Weapons Mass Media and War Pursuing PeacePolitics: Looking AheadSeeing Sociology in Everyday LifeMaking the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 13: Family and ReligionFamily: Basic ConceptsFamily: Global Variations Marriage Patterns Residential Patterns Patterns of Descent Patterns of AuthorityTheoretical Analysis of Families Functions of Family: Structural-Functional Analysis Inequality and Family: Social-Conflict and Feminist Analysis Constructing Family Life: Micro-Level AnalysisStages of Family Life Courtship and Romantic Love Seeing Sociology in the News "Prenuptial Agreements: Unromantic, but Necessary" Settling In: Ideal and Real Marriage Child Rearing The Family in Later LifeU.S. Families: Class, Race, and Gender Social Class Ethnicity and Race GenderTransitions and Problems in Family Life Divorce Remarriage and Blended Families Family ViolenceAlternative Family Forms One-Parent Families Cohabitation Gay and Lesbian Couples SinglehoodNew Reproductive Technologies and FamilyFamilies: Looking AheadReligion: Basic ConceptsTheoretical Analysis of Religion Functions of Religion: Structural-Functional Analysis Constructing the Sacred: Symbolic-Interaction Analysis Inequality and Religion: Social-Conflict AnalysisReligion and Social Change Max Weber: Protestantism and Capitalism Liberation TheologyTypes of Religious Organization Church Sect CultReligion in HistoryReligion in the United States Religious Commitment Religion: Class, Ethnicity, and RaceReligion in a Changing Society Changing Affiliation Secularization Civil Religion "New Age" Seekers: Spirituality without Formal Religion Religious Revival: "Good Old-Time Religion"Religion: Looking AheadSeeing Sociology in Everyday LifeMakin the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 14: Education, Health, and MedicineEducation: A Global Survey Schooling and Economic Development Schooling in India Schooling in Japan Schooling in the United StatesThe Functions of SchoolingSchooling and Social Interaction The Self-Fulfilling ProphecySchooling and Social Inequality Public and Private Education Access to Higher Education Greater Opportunity: Expanding Higher Education Seeing Sociology in the News "New Meaning for Night Classes at Two-Year Colleges" Privilege and Personal MeritProblems in the Schools Discipline and Violence Student Passivity Dropping Out Academic Standards Grade InflationIssues in U.S. Education School Choice Home Schooling Schooling People with Disabilities Adult Education The Teacher ShortageSchooling: Looking AheadHealth and Medicine Health and SocietyHealth: A Global Survey Health in Low-Income Countries Health in High-Income CountriesHealth in the United States Who Is Healthy? Age, Gender, Class, and Race Cigarette Smoking Eating Disorders Obesity Sexually Transmitted Diseases Ethical Issues Surrounding DeathThe Medical Establishment The Rise of Scientific Medicine Holistic Medicine Paying for Medical Care: The United States The Nursing ShortageTheoretical Analysis of Health and Medicine Structural-Functional Analysis: Role Theory Symbolic-Interaction Analysis: The Meaning of Health Social-Conflict and Feminist AnalysisHealth and Medicine: Looking AheadSeeing Sociology in Everyday LifeMaking the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 15: Population, Urbanization, and EnvironmentDemography: The Study of Population Fertility Mortality Migration Population Growth Population CompositionHistory and Theory of Population Growth Malthusian Theory Demographic Transition Theory Global Population Today: A Brief SummaryUrbanization: The Growth of Cities The Evolution of Cities The Growth of U.S. Cities Suburbs and Urban Decline Sunbelt Cities and Urban Sprawl Megalopolis: The Regional City Edge Cities The Rural ReboundUrbanism as a Way of Life Ferdinand Toennies: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft Emile Durkheim: Mechanical and Organic Solidarity Georg Simmel: The Blase Urbanite The Chicago School: Robert Park and Louis Wirth Urban Ecology Urban Political EconomyUrbanization in Poor NationsEnvironment and Society The Global Dimension Technology and the Environmental Deficit Seeing Sociology in the News "Boyz Under the Hood" Culture: Growth and Limits Solid Waste: The Disposable Society Water and Air The Rain Forests Environmental RacismLooking Ahead: Toward a Sustainable Society and WorldSeeing Sociology in Everyday LifeMaking the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 16: Social Change: Modern and Postmodern SocietiesWhat Is Social Change?Causes of Social Change Culture and Change Conflict and Change Ideas and Change Demographic Change Social Movements and Change Seeing Sociology in the News "Facebook Helps Spark Movements" Disasters: Unexpected ChangeModernity Ferdinand Toennies: The Loss of Community Emile Durkheim: The Division of Labor Max Weber: Rationalization Karl Marx: CapitalismStructural-Functional Analysis: Modernity as Mass Society The Mass Scale of Modern Life The Ever Expanding StateSocial-Conflict Analysis: Modernity as Class Society Capitalism Persistent InequalityModernity and the Individual Mass Society: Problems of Identity Class Society: Problems of PowerlessnessModernity and ProgressModernity: Global VariationPostmodernityLooking Ahead: Modernization and Our Global FutureSeeing Sociology in Everyday LifeMaking the Grade Visual Summary

Promotional Information

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life Society: The Basics is designed to help students view their everyday lives through a sociological lens. With a strong theoretical framework and a global perspective, Society offers students an accessible and relevant introduction to sociology. In Society: The Basics, Eleventh Edition, John J. Macionis shares his enthusiasm and teaching experience with a clear and engaging approach.

About the Author

John J. Macionis was born and raised in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He earned a bachelor's degree from Cornell University and a doctorate in sociology from the University of Pennsylvania. John Macionis' publications are wide-ranging, focusing on community life in the United States, interpersonal intimacy in families, effective teaching, humor, new information technology, and the importance of global education. In addition, John Macionis and Nijole V. Benokraitis have edited the best-selling anthology Seeing Ourselves: Classic, Contemporary, and Cross-Cultural Readings in Sociology. Macionis and Vincent Parrillo have written the leading urban studies text, Cities and Urban Life (Pearson). Macionis' most recent textbook is Social Problems (Pearson). John Macionis is Professor and Distinguished Scholar of Sociology at Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio, where he has taught for almost thirty years. During that time, he has chaired the Sociology Department, directed the college's multidisciplinary program in humane studies, presided over the campus senate and the college's faculty, and taught sociology to thousands of students. In 2002, the American Sociological Association presented Macionis with the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Teaching, citing his innovative use of global material as well as the introduction of new teaching technology in his textbooks. Professor Macionis has been active in academic programs in other countries, having traveled to some fifty nations. He writes, "I am an ambitious traveler, eager to learn and, through the texts, to share much of what I discover with students, many of whom know little about the rest of the world. For me, traveling and writing are all dimensions of teaching. First, and foremost, I am a teacher-a passion for teaching animates everything I do." At Kenyon, Macionis teaches a number of courses, but his favorite class is Introduction to Sociology, which he offers every semester. He enjoys extensive contact with students and invites everyone enrolled in each of his classes to enjoy a home-cooked meal. The Macionis family-John, Amy, and children McLean and Whitney-live on a farm in rural Ohio. In his free time, Macionis enjoys tennis, swimming, hiking, and playing oldies rock-and-roll (he recently released his first CD). Macionis is as an environmental activist in the Lake George region of New York's Adirondack Mountains, working with a number of organizations, including the Lake George Land Conservancy, where he serves as president of the board of trustees.


Brennon Williams is the Chief Technology Officer for the award-winning UK design and development agency, Splendid. Brennon is also a technical advisor to several companies around the world, specializing in the implementation of designer/developer collaboration and workflows. For almost two decades, Brennon has worked in several countries as a consultant software developer and technical advisor. Owner of the ExpressionBlend.com website which is due to be launched in 2011, Brennon's technology insights can also be followed at his personal blog, brennonwilliams.com Brennon was awarded a BS in Computer Science from NYU and has received the Microsoft MVP award for Expression Blend 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011.

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