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Soil and Groundwater Contamination
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Preface v 1 Introduction A. S. Mayer and S. M. Hassanizadeh 1 2 Fundamentals K. H. Jensen and R. W. Falta 5 2.1 NAPL Characteristics and behavior of NAPLs in the subsurface 5 2.2 Parametersr esponsiblefo r NAPL distributiona nd flow in the subsurface 9 2.2.1 Interfacial tension and wettability 9 2.2.2 Capillary p ressure a nd capillary p ressure c urves 12 2.2.3 Relative permeability and relative permeability curves 24 2.2.4 Darcy's law and governinge quations for multiphase flow 27 2.3 NAPL mass transfer and transport 30 2.3.1 VaporP ressurea nd Solubility 31 2.3.2 Phase Densities 32 2.3.3 Concentrations 34 2.3.4 Equilibrium Phase Partitioning 37 2.3.5 Multiphase Transport Mechanisms 43 Migration and Distribution T. H. IllangasekareK, . H. JensenI,. Javandel, a nd A . S. Mayer 47 3.1 Residuala nd trappeds aturations 47 3.2 The role of geologicalh eterogeneity 49 3.3 Interactions with the water table 54 3.3.1 LNAPL accumulation on water table 54 3.3.2 DNAPL poolingo n vs. penetrationo f the water table 56 3.3.3 Smearing of LNAPL due to water table fluctuations 59 3.4 Capillary barbers and channels 63 3.4.1 NAPL poolingo n vs. penetrationo f low permeable material 63 3.4.2 Migration of DNAPLs along sloping confining layers 72 3.4.3 Occurrenceo f NAPLs in high permeability regions 76 3.5 Small scale NAPL distribution 81 3.5.1 Unstable Fronts and Fingers 81 3.5.2 Occurrenceo f NAPLs in clay or rock fractures 86 4 Site Characterization and Monitoring A. S. Mayer and M. Oostrom 97 4.1 LNAPL observations 97 4.1.1 Discrepancyb etweenf ree productl evels in monitoringw ells andL NAPL specificv olume 97 4.1.2 Correlation of LNAPL well measurements to LNAPL volume 107 4.2 Observationso f dissolvedN APL components 116 4.2.1 NAPL componentsp resenti n groundwatear t lower than solubilityc oncentrationasn d fluctuationsin concentrations 116 4.2.2 Upgradiento ccurrenceo f dissolvedN APL componentvs vi a gas p hase t ransport 135 5 Remediation M. Oostrom, R, W. Falta, A. S. Mayer, I. Javandel, and S. M. Hassanizadeh 141 5.1 Remediation methodologies 141 5.2 Hydraulic removal of LNAPL 146 5.2.1 LNAPL trapping as free product migrates towards extraction well 146 5.2.2 LNAPL trapping in the cone of depression 151 5.2.3 Decrease in free LNAPL recovery rates as a function of time 157 5.2.4 Incomplete removal of residual LNAPL with hydraulic methods 163 5.3 Pump and treat 169 5.4 Soil vapor extraction 178 Notation 191 List of Figures 197 List of Tables 204 References 206

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