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Solidification and Crystallization Processing in Metals and Alloys


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Table of Contents

Preface Chapter 1 Thermodynamic Concepts and Relationships 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Thermodynamic Concepts and Relationships 1.3 Thermodynamics of Single Component Systems 1.4. Thermodynamics of Multiple Component Systems 1.5 Thermodynamics of Alloys 1.6 Thermodynamics of Ideal Binary Solutions 1.7 Thermodynamics of Non-Ideal Binary Solutions 1.8 Experimental Determination of Thermodynamic Quantities of Binary Alloys Summary Chapter 2 Thermodynamics Analysis of Solidification Processes in Metals and Alloys 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Thermodynamics of Pure Metals 2.3 Thermodynamics of Binary Alloys 2.4 Equilibrium between Phases in Binary Solutions. Phase Diagrams of Binary Alloys 2.5 Driving Force of Solidification in Binary Alloys 2.6 Thermodynamics of Ternary Alloys 2.7 Thermodynamics of Vacancies in Pure Metals and Alloys Summary Exercises References Chapter 3 Properties of Interfaces 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Classical Theory of Interface Energy and Surface Tension 3.3 Thermodynamics of Interfaces 3.4 Structures of Interfaces 3.5 Equilibrium Shapes of Crystals Summary Exercises References Chapter 4 Nucleation 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Homogeneous Nucleation 4.3 Heterogeneous Nucleation. Inoculation 4.4 Nucleation of Bubbles 4.5 Crystal Multiplication Summary Exercises References Chapter 5 Crystal Growth in Vapours 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Crystal Morphologies 5.3 Chemical Vapour Deposition 5.4 Crystal Growth 5.5 Normal Crystal Growth of Rough Surfaces in Vapours 5.6 Layer Crystal Growth of Smooth Surfaces in Vapours 5.7 Influence of Impurities on Crystal Growth in Vapours 5.8 Epitaxial Growth 5.9 Whisker Growth 5.10 Mechanical Restrictions on Thin Films Summary Exercises References Chapter 6 Crystal Growth in Liquids and Melts 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Structures of Crystals and Melts 6.3 Growth Methods 6.4 Crystal Growth 6.5 Volume Changes and Relaxation Processes during Anelastic Crystal Growth in Metal Melts 6.6 Normal Crystal Growth in Pure Metal Melts 6.7 Layer Crystal Growth of Smooth Surfaces in Liquids 6.8 Normal Crystal Growth in Binary Alloys 6.9 Diffusion Controlled Growth of Planar Crystals in Binary Alloys 6.10 Diffusion Controlled Growth of Spherical Crystals in Alloys 6.11 Impingement 6.12 Precipitation of Pores Summary Exercises References Chapter 7 Heat Transport during Solidification Processes.Thermal Analysis 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Basic Concepts and Laws of Heat Transport 7.3 Convection 7.4 Theory of Heat Transport at Unidirectional Solidification 7.5 Production of Single Crystals by Unidirectional Solidification 7.6 Thermal Analysis 7.7 Variable Heat of Fusion of Metals and Alloys 7.8 Variable Heat Capacitivity of Metals and Alloys Summary Exercises References Chapter 8 Crystal Growth Controlled by Heat and Mass Transport 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Heat and Mass Transports in Alloys during Unidirectional Solidification 8.3 Zone Refining 8.4 Single Crystal Production by Czochralski Technique 8.5 Cellular Growth. Constitutional Undercooling. Interface Stability Summary Exercises References Chapter 9 Faceted and Dendritic Solidification Structures 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Formation of Faceted Crystals 9.3 Growth of Faceted Crystals in Pure Metal Melts 9.4 Growth of Faceted Crystals in Alloy Melts 9.5 Growth of Dendritic Crystals 9.6 Development of Dendrites 9.7 Transitions between Structure Types in Alloys Summary Exercises References Chapter 10 Eutectic Solidification Structures 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Classification of Eutectic Structures 10.3 Normal Eutectic Growth 10.4 Degenerate and Coupled Eutectic Growth 10.5 Structures of Ternary Alloys 10.6 Solidification of Fe-C Eutectics 10.7 Solidification of Al-Si Eutectics 10.8 Transitions between Normal Lamellar and Rod Eutectic Growths Summary Exercises References Chapter 11 Peritectic Solidification Structures 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Peritectic Reactions and Transformations 11.3 Peritectic Reactions and Transformations in Iron-Base Alloys 11.4 Metastable Reactions in Iron-Base Alloys 11.5 Metatectic Reactions and Transformations 11.6 Microsegregation in Iron-Base Alloys 11.7 Transition between Peritectic and Eutectic Reactions in in Iron-Base Alloys Summary Exercises References Chapter 12 Metallic Glasses and Amorphous Alloy Melts 12.1 Introduction 12.1 History and Development of Amorphous Alloys 12.2 Basic Concepts and Definitions 12.3 Production of Metallic Glasses 12.4 Experimental Methods for Structure Determination of Metallic Glasses and Amorphous Alloy Melts 12.5 Structure of Metallic Glasses 12.6 Comparison of the Structures of Metallic Glasses and Amorphous Alloy Melts. Rough Model of Metallic Glasses and Amorphous Alloy Melts 12.7 Casting of Metallic Glasses. Crystallization Processes in Amorphous Alloy Melts 12.8 Classification of Metallic Glasses 12.9 Properties and Applications of Metallic Glasses Summary Exercises References Answers to Exercises Index

About the Author

Hasse Fredriksson, KTH, Sweden. Ulla ?kerlind, University of Stockholm, Sweden.

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