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Steel Surfaces - A Guide to Alloys, Finishes, Fabrication and Maintenance in Architecture and Art
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Table of Contents

PREFACE CHAPTER 1 Introduction Iron and Steel History Early Architectural Uses What Defines Steel The Important Steel Alloys for the Designer

Low Carbon Steel

Medium Carbon Steel

High Carbon Steel

High Strength Low Alloy Steels - The Weathering Steels

Enameling Steel

Cast Iron

Steel Manufacture and Production Safety and Hygiene / Recycle Coatings on Steel A Material for Artists Choosing the Right Steel CHAPTER 2 Alloys Introduction The Alloy Numbering Code Alloying Elements

Carbon

Other Elements

Tempers The Wrought Alloys of Iron

Wrought Iron

The Wrought Alloys of Steel

G10060

G10080

G10100

A36 Steel

G10180

G10120

The Weathering Steel Alloys - High Strength Low Alloy Steels

K11430

K12043

Other Steel Alloys

The Alloy Steels

G41300

Tool Steels

Cast Alloys

Grey Cast Iron

White Cast Iron

Malleable Cast Iron

Ductile Cast Iron

Cast Steels

CHAPTER 3 Finishes Introduction The Mill Surface of Sheet and Plate Material The Carbon Steel Surface

Hot Rolled Surface

Hot Rolled Carbon Steel Plate

Hot Rolled Carbon Steel Sheet

Cold Rolled Carbon Steel Sheet

Commercial Steel

Drawing Steel and Forming Steel

Cold Rolled Structural Steel

Mill Oil

The Nature of the Steel Surface Finish

Finish Possibilities Available for Steels

Protective Oxide - The Weathering Steels

Preweathering - An Art and Science

Preweathering - Hot Rolled vs Cold Rolled Surfaces

The Controlled Surface

Interior Uses of Weathering Steel

Galvanized Steel Surfaces

Protective Oxide - Bluing and Darkening

Bluing of Steel

Blackening of Galvanized Steel

Color Tinting of Steel by Heat

Chromate treatments

Painted Steel Surfaces

Surfacing Effects

Damascene and Pattern Welded Steel

Laying Down Weld

Carved Steel

CHAPTER 4 Expectations Introduction The Development of Rust The Choices Available to the Designer Interior Exposures

Carbon Steels

Interior Weathering Steels

Exterior Exposures

Carbon Steels

Wrought and Cast Irons

Cast Irons

Carbon Steel - Structural Steel

Zinc Rich Primers

Galvanized Steel

Weathering Steel

Preweathered Steel

Marine Environments

Urban Pollution

Good Design

CHAPTER 5 Designing with the Available Forms Introduction Early Forms Wrought Iron The Wrought Forms of Steel The Steel Mill Hot Rolled and Cold Rolled Sheet and Plate

Mill Packaging Requirements

Sheet

Coils

Perforated and Expanded Metal

Perforated Steel

Expanded Metal

Plate Thicknesses and Widths

Weathering Steel Plate

Bar and Rod

Round Rod

Tubing and Pipe

Structural Shapes

HSS - Hollow Structural Sections

Wire, Woven Wire, and Screens

Extrusions

Steel Windows

Powder, Bead and Shot

Foil

Cast Steel CHAPTER 6 Working with Steels Introduction Cutting Steels

Shearing and Blanking

Saw Cutting

Laser

Plasma

Torch Cut

Waterjet

Punching

Forming

Roll Forming

Press Brake Forming

Other Cold Forming Processes

Springback

V-Cutting

Hot Forming

Forging

Machining

Stamping

Soldering and Brazing

Welding

Fusion Welding Processes Used on Steels

Oxy - Acetylene

GTAW - Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

GMAW - Gas Metal Arc Welding

SMAW - Shielded Metal Arc Welding

FCW - Flux Core Wire Welding

SAW - Submerged Arc Welding

PAW - Plasma Arc Welding

EBW - Electron Beam Welding

Laser Beam Welding

Capacitor Discharge Fusion Stud Welding

Arc Stud Welding

Friction Stir Welding

The Steps in Welding

Joint Preparation

Filler Metal

Heat Input during welding

Post Weld treatment and Cleanup

Distortion

Welding of Weathering Steels

Bolts

Stud Welding

Casting

White Cast iron

Grey Cast iron

Malleable Iron

Ductile Iron

Compacted Graphite Cast Iron

Difficulties in Casting

CHAPTER 7 Corrosion Characteristics Introduction What is rust Corrosion of Steel and Iron

Atmospheric Corrosion - The Electrolyte on the Surface

Corrosion of Cast Iron or Cast Steel

Coatings and Corrosion

Failure modes of Paint

Inorganic Protection of Steels

Galvanizing and Metal Protective Coatings for Steel

Plating

Weathering Steels - How are they different than other steels

Weathering Steel Performance in Various Environments

Environmental Exposures and their Effects

Carbon Steels

Steel Used In different Environments

Types of Corrosion

Uniform Corrosion

Galvanic Corrosion and Galvanic Protection of Steels

Galvanic Corrosion and the Ratio of Areas

Key Conditions Needed for Galvanic Corrosion to Occur

Transfer Corrosion

Pitting Corrosion

Intergranular Corrosion

Crevice Corrosion

Line Corrosion

CHAPTER 8 Maintaining the Steel Surface Introduction Painted Steel Surfaces Develop a Maintenance Strategy

Cleaning and Mainenance - Weathering Steel

Protecting Steels - Storage Protecting Steel Surfaces - Custom Protecting Steel Objects - Impressed Current Protection Protecting Steel Surfaces - Sacrificial Anode Maintaining Steels in Different Environments

Physical Cleanliness

Achieving Physical Cleanliness

Mill Oils

Fingerprints

Degreasing Using Hot Alkaline Baths

Dirt and Grime

Adhesives

Temperature Issues

Deposits from Sealant Decomposition

Grease Deposits from Building Exhaust Systems

Graffiti

High Pressure Water Blasting

Steam Cleaning

De-ionized Water

Abrasive Pads and Brushes

Chemical Cleanliness

Laser Ablation

Constant Wetting

Water streaks and Standing Water Staining

De-icing Salts

Mechanical Cleanliness

Vandalism

Scratches and Mars

  • Dents

Ghosting from Packaging Materials

Distortion

Welding Distortion

Distortions from Cold Forming Operations

Hail Damage and Small Dent Repair

Free Iron Particles - Staining

Coating Weathering Steels

Appendix A: Terms Appendix B: Comparative Metals Appendix C: Alloy Cross Reference Appendix D: SSPC Specifications Appendix E: Sample Steel Specifications Appendix F: ASTM Specifications Appendix G: Galvanized Coatings on Steel

Index

About the Author

L. William Zahner, is President and CEO of A. Zahner Company, Inc. and Chairman of Metalabs LLC, and is an internationally recognized expert on the design and use of architectural metals. He is the author of Architectural Metal Surfaces and Architectural Metals: A Guide to Selection, Specification, and Performance, both from Wiley.

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