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The Technology and Business of Mobile Communications
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Table of Contents

Contents

Chapter 1: A technology that changed the world 9 1.1 Social and economic impact of mobile communications 10 1.1.1 Social Impact 10 1.1.2 Economic Impact 12 1.2 A Brief history of Mobile (Cellular) communications 15 1.3 The Journey of mobile communications as seen from user and operator perspectives 24 REFERENCES 27 Chapter 2 - The Mobile Telecoms Ecosystem 30 2.1 Introduction 30 2.2 Telecommunications ecosystem 30 2.3 Regulation and spectrum 32 2.3 Standardisation 34 2.4 Research 35 2.5 End users 36 2.6 The role of operators (carriers) 36 2.7 The role of vendors/ manufacturers 37 2.8 The role of standard bodies and regulators 37 2.9 Telecoms ecosystem dynamics and behaviour 38 2.10 5G Ecosystem 40 2.10.1 Datacentres 40 2.10.2 RF Chip and component manufacturers 41 2.10.3 Telecom operators (carriers) 41 2.10.4 Infrastructure Service Providers 41 2.10.5 Gaming 41 2.10.6 Over The Top (OTT) 42 2.10.7 Low-Cost Processing Unit Manufacturer 42 2.10.8 Investors 42 2.10.9 Potential disruptions in the 5G eco system 43 2.11 Summary 45 References 46 3 The Business of a Mobile Operator 49 3.1 Business Challenges Faced by Operators 49 3.1.1 Third Party Costs 49 3.1.2 Radio Access Network Costs 50 3.1.3 Transmission Costs 54 3.1.4 Physical Locations 58 3.1.5 Power Costs for Multiple Technologies 58 3.2 MVNOs A Mobile Virtual Network Operators 59 3.2.1 Economics of an MVNO 60 3.2.2 Modelling MVNOs and SPs 63 3.3 Operator business around International roaming 67 3.3.1 The EU roaming regulation Aroam like at homeA 68 3.3.2 Covid-19 impact on roaming revenues 70 3.4 The likely operator business models in 5G 70 3.5 Conclusion 72 REFERENCES 73 Chapter 4 A Why Standards matter 76 4.1 The creation of a new AGA 76 4.1.1 Research 77 4.1.2 Standardisation 77 4.1.3 Commercialisation 80 4.1.4 Continued Innovation 81 4.1.5 Intellectual Property as a metric and political currency 83 4.2 Shifting political power and the making of an ecosystem 84 4.2.1 2G GSM A Europe leads 84 4.2.2 3G UMTS A Universal (except not quite) 87 4.2.3 4G EPS A Avoiding old mistakes (and making new ones?) 91 4.2.4 5G NR A new world order? 96 4.3 Future Standards 99 REFERENCES 101 Chapter 5: The mobile network 102 5.1 Mobile Network Architecture 102 5.2 The Radio Access Network (RAN) 103 5.2.1 Synchronisation: 104 5.2.2 Broadcast messages: 104 5.2.3 Paging: 105 5.2.4 Random Access: 105 5.2.5 Scheduling: 106 5.2.6 Power control: 106 5.2.7 Handover: 106 5.2.8 Link Adaptation: 108 5.2.9 HARQ, error correction: 108 5.2.10 MIMO techniques: 108 5.2.11 The control/data channels and reference signals 109 5.3 The Core Network (CN) 109 5.3.1 Circuit switching and packet switching networks: 110 5.3.2 Tunnelling and Encapsulation: 111 5.4 The protocol stack 112 5.4.1 The OSI model of 7 layer protocol stack 113 5.4.2 Protocol stacks for mobile communications 115 5.5 The 2G Network 117 5.5.1 The network architecture of 2G 117 5.5.2 The GSM frame structure 119 5.5.3 GSM (and GPRS) RAN features 121 5.5.4 2G evolutions 122 5.6 The 3G Network 123 5.6.1 The UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) 124 5.6.2 UTRAN Features: 127 5.6.3 The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS): 128 5.6.4 Issues with the UMTS air interface: 129 5.6.5 3G evolution to HSPA 129 5.7 The 4G Network 131 5.7.1 LTE system Architecture: 132 5.7.2 LTE Protocol Layers 134 5.7.3 LTE Multiple Access schemes: 136 5.7.4 LTE Frame structures: 140 5.7.5 LTE reference signals: 141 5.7.6 LTE main RAN procedures: 142 5.7.7 Main features of subsequent LTE releases: 146 5.8 The 5G Network 148 5.8.1 5G-NR Deployment options: 149 5.8.2 5G-NR System Architecture: 150 5.8.3 Spectrum options for 5G-NR 151 5.8.4 5G-NR Protocol layers: 152 5.8.5 The 5G-NR Air Interface 154 5.8.6 5G-NR RAN procedures: 156 5.8.7 5G-NR Reference signals: 158 5.8.8 5G Core - concepts and functionalities: 158 5.9 The Centralization and Virtualization of the mobile network 160 5.9.1 The Centralized RAN (C-RAN) 160 5.9.2 NFV (Virtualized Network Functions) and SDN (Software Defined Networking) concepts 162 5.10 Conclusions 165 REFERENCES 166 Chapter 6: Basics of Network Dimensioning and Planning 169 6.1 Properties of Signal Strength, Noise and Interference 169 6.2 The link budget and coverage dimensioning 173 6.2.1 The Transmit power: 173 6.2.2 The Antenna gains: 173 6.2.3 Transmit and Receive diversity gains: 174 6.2.4 The EIRP: 174 6.2.5 Modelling the path loss: 175 6.2.6 Modelling the Log Normal Fade Margin 178 6.2.7 The FFM 179 6.2.7 Building Penetration Loss 179 6.2.8 Building the link budget 179 6.3 The capacity dimensioning 181 6.3.1 The capacity demand estimation process: 182 6.3.2 Capacity demand estimation A worked example 184 6.3.3 Resource provision A worked example 187 6.4 The dimensioning of backhaul links 192 6.4.1 LTE Backhaul provision A general aspects 193 6.4.2 LTE Backhaul provision - Capacity aspects: 194 6.4.3 New developments in backhaul/fronthaul provision 200 6.5 The network planning process 201 6.5.1 The network area maps 201 6.5.2 Site placement and Antenna radiation patterns 202 6.5.3 Traffic modelling and capacity provision information 203 6.5.4 Fine tuning and optimisation 204 6.6 A look at 5G networks 205 REFERENCES 208 7 Spectrum A the life blood of radio communications 210 7.1 Introduction 210 7.2 Spectrum management and its objectives 210 7.2.1 The role of the ITU 210 7.2.2 Regional bodies 211 7.2.3 National regulators and their roles 212 7.2.4 The spectrum management process 213 7.3 Spectrum allocations 215 7.4 Spectrum assignment 216 7.4.1 Administrative assignments 216 7.4.2 Market based mechanisms 216 7.4.3 Beauty contests 216 7.5 Spectrum licensing 217 7.5.1 Spectrum for mobile services 218 7.5.2 Dimensions of spectrum sharing 222 7.6 Spectrum bands considered for 5G 224 7.6.1 Example illustration of spectrum deployment strategy for MNOs 225 7.6.2 Local access spectrum 226 REFERENCES 228 Chapter 8: Fundamentals of Digital Communication 230 8.1 Basic Digital Communication System Overview 230 8.2 Encoding Information 232 8.2.1 Sampling 232 8.2.2 Source Coding 233 8.2.3 Channel Coding 235 8.3 Signal Representation and Modulation 240 8.3.1 Mapping Bits to Signals 241 8.3.2 Signal Spectrum 244 8.4 Signal Demodulation and Detection 245 8.4.1 System Model and Sources of Noise 245 8.4.2 Demodulation 246 8.4.3 Detection 248 8.5 Performance Analysis 248 8.5.1 Capacity 249 8.5.2 Bit-error Rate and Symbol-error Rate 250 8.6 Communication Through Dispersive Channels 251 8.6.1 Time-domain Equalization and Detection 252 8.6.2 Frequency-domain Equalization 255 8.7 Multiple Access: A Second Look 261 8.7.1 CDMA and 3G 261 8.7.2 OFDMA/SC-FDMA and 4G 263 8.7.3 NOMA and 5G 265 8.8 System Impairments 267 8.8.1 Carrier Phase Estimation 267 8.8.2 Timing Recovery 268 8.8.3 Channel Estimation 268 8.9 Further Reading 269 REFERENCES 270 Chapter 9: Early Technical Challenges and Innovative Solutions 271 9.1 Wireless Channels: The Challenge 271 9.1.1 Propagation 272 9.1.2 Fading and Multipath 274 Rayleigh Fading 275 Rician Fading 276 Nakagami Fading 276 9.1.3 Signal-to-Noise Ratio in Fading Channels 279 9.2 Multicarrier Modulation: A Second Look 281 9.2.1 Coded OFDM 281 9.2.2 Capacity and Adaptive Modulation 281 9.3 Diversity 283 9.3.1 Macro Diversity 283 9.3.2 Time Diversity 284 9.3.3 Frequency Diversity 286 9.3.4 Spatial Diversity 286 Maximum Ratio Receiver Combining 287 Selection Combining 288 Maximum Ratio Transmission 289 Transmit Antenna Selection 289 Delay Diversity 290 Space-Time/Frequency Coding 291 9.4 Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) 292 9.4.1 Capacity 293 9.4.2 MIMO Transmission Techniques 295 9.4.3 MIMO Reception Techniques 296 9.4.4 MIMO vs Multicarrier 298 9.4.5 Multi-User and Massive MIMO 298 REFERENCES 300 Chapter 10: Small Cells - an evolution or a revolution 301 10.1 Introduction 301 10.2 Small Cells concept formation 302 10.3 Multi-tier Cellular Networks/HetNets Architecture 304 10.3.1 Interference Management 304 10.3.2 Mobility Management 305 10.3.3 Backhaul 305 10.4 Interference Management and Modelling in Small cell/HetNets 305 10.4.1 Interference Management 305 10.4.2 Interference Modelling 308 10.5 Mobility Management 312 10.6 Backhaul 315 10.7 Small Cell Deployment 318 10.8 Future Evolution of Small Cells 323 10.9 Conclusion 324 REFERENCES 324 Chapter 11: TodayAs and TomorrowAs Challenges 327 11.1 The capacity crunch 327 11.1.1 A historical perspective 327 11.1.2 Methods for capacity enhancement 328 11.1.3 Impact on Transport and core networks 331 11.1.4 Complementary technologies 333 11.2 Increasing network complexity 336 11.2.1 The Self-Organising Networks 336 11.2.2 Network Automation in 5G 340 11.2.3 The business rationale for network automation 342 11.3 The need for Greener and lower EMF networks 343 11.3.1 Greener Mobile Networks 343 11.3.3 Green manufacturing and Recycling 345 11.3.4 Applications of mobile networks for energy reduction 345 11.3.5 Electromagnetic Field Exposure and Mobile Networks 346 11.4 Covering the unserved and under-served regions 349 11.4.1 New Access Technologies 349 11.4.2 Initiatives driven by government funding and policy 352 REFERENCES 354 Chapter 12: The changing face of mobile communications 357 12.1 Changes with the centralization and virtualization of the mobile network 357 12.2 Supporting multiple vertical Industries through 5G 359 12.2.1. Automotive sector 360 12.2.2. Smart City 363 12.2.3. Industry 4.0 365 12.2.4. Critical communications sector 368 12.2.5. Other vertical areas under development 371 12.3 The continuous evolution of the mobile device 372 12.4 What will 6G look like? 374 12.4.1 Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence 375 12.4.2 Blockchain and the Internet of Things 376 12.4.3 Evolutions in Cloud and Edge Computing 376 12.4.4 Advanced Hybrid Beamforming 377 12.4.5 New Modulation schemes 378 12.4.6 Tera-Hertz (THz) communications 378 12.4.7 Orbital Angular Momentum 379 12.4.8 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles 380 12.4.9 Quantum Technology 380 REFERENCES 381

About the Author

Mythri Hunukumbure earned his PhD degree in Telecommunication Engineering from the University of Bristol in 2004. He is currently a Principal Research Engineer and a Project Lead at Samsung Electronics R&D Institute UK. He has contributed to and later led mobile communication research, standardisation, and product development activities. While at Samsung, he has participated in flagship EU projects mmMAGIC, ONE5G and 5G LOCUS as a work package leader. He is actively contributing to 3GPP RAN1 and SA2 standardisation topics, securing vital IPR. He has filed around 50 patents to date and has also published extensively in leading conferences and journals, receiving the best paper award at the World Telecommunications Congress (WTC) in 2012.Justin P. Coon received his PhD in Communications from the University of Bristol, UK in 2005. From 2004 until 2013, he held various technical and management positions at Toshiba Research Europe Ltd. (TREL). Professor Coon also held a Reader position in the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at the University of Bristol from 2012 until 2013. In 2013, he took a faculty position at Oxford University with a Tutorial Fellowship at Oriel College. Professor Coon is a Fellow of the Institute of Mathematics and Its Applications (FIMA) and a Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Ben Allen completed his PhD degree at the University of Bristol in 2001. He completed a Royal Society Industry Fellowship with the University of Oxford and Network Rail, and has led several R&D activities involving telecoms for railways, several of which exhibit state-of-the-art advances. He is now working in the satellite communications industry. He has published numerous papers and several books on radio and telecommunications research developments. Dr Allen is a Chartered Engineer, Fellow of the Institution of Engineering & Technology, Institute of Telecommunications Professionals and the Higher Education Academy. Tony Vernon graduated from the University of Glasgow, UK, in 1987 with a Joint Honours in Electronic Engineering with Physics. After a few years in the cellular industry, he obtained chartered status and in 2002 received a PhD in Mobile Telecoms from the University of Bristol, UK. His main interests and career contributions lie in the planning and optimisation of digital mobile networks ranging from the dawn of 2G in 1991 to 5G in 2021. Dr Vernon's focus has moved to the vehicular channel (V2X) and the future use of soon-to-be-ubiquitous mobile broadband networks for national and public-access broadcasting. He is based on the Scottish Outer Hebridean island of South Uist and is passionate about expanding 4G and 5G mobile broadband connectivity to rural and remote areas.

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