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Technology for Facility Managers


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Table of Contents





History and Overview xix

Content xx

Crosswalk xx

Part 1 Technology xxiii

Part 2 Applications xxiii


Chapter 1: CAFMIWMS-Balancing Technology, Processes, and Objectives xxv

Chapter 2: Building Information Modeling xxvi

Chapter 3: Building Automation and Control Systems xxvii

Chapter 4: Roles of GIS in Facility Management xxviii

Chapter 5: Radio Frequency Identification xxviii

Chapter 6: Information and Communications Technology xxix

Chapter 7: Workflow Technology: Knowledge in Motion xxx

Chapter 8: Sustainability xxxi

Chapter 9: Condition Assessment in Facility Asset Management xxxii

Chapter 10: Computer Modeling xxxii

Chapter 11: Technology and the Workplace xxxiii

Chapter 12: The Role of People and Process in Technology xxxiv

Chapter 13: Social Media xxxv


PART 1: Technology

CHAPTER 1 CAFMIWMS-Balancing Technology, Processes, and Objectives 3
Chris Keller

Executive Summary 3

Introduction 4

Overview and Objectives 5

Value of Facility Management Automation to the Organization 6

Interoperability 6

Opportunity for Reorganization 7

Conveying Culture 8

Facility Management Technology 8

Balancing Act 10

Technology of the (Near) Future 12

Trends in Facility Management 12

Trends in Business 13

Trends in Technology 14

CHAPTER 2 Building Information Modeling 21
Louise A. Sabol

Introduction 21

BIM for Facilities Management 24

Standards and Data Exchange 31

Challenges of BIM for FM 33

FM BIM in Practice: Health Care Building Consortium's BIM Initiatives 36

CHAPTER 3 Building Automation and Control Systems 41
Terry Hoffmann

History of Building Automation Systems 41

Building Automation Systems Today 47

The Future of Building Automation Systems 51

Case Study: Ave Maria University, Naples, Florida 53

CHAPTER 4 Roles of Geographic Information Systems in Facility Management 55
William P. Witts Jr.

Enhancing FM Capabilities with GIS 55

GIS Technology 55

GIS with Facilities Management 56

GIS Data 56

Location 56

Vector Data 56

Raster Data 57

Attribute Data 58

Mapping for FM 59

Location Mapping 59

Thematic Mapping 61

Mapping Density 62

Mapping Change 64

Spatial Analysis for FM 64

Attribute Selection 64

Nearest Selection 65

Inside Selection 66

Buffering Selection 67

Geocoding 68

Current Use of GIS at MIT Facilities 68

MIT History 68

Access to GIS through the Internet 69

GIS Analysis within the Building 71

Mobile Technologies 73

Conclusion 73

CHAPTER 5 Radio Frequency Identification 75
Geoff Williams

Introduction 75

Origins and Evolution 76

Standardization 76

Beyond Barcode 77

Corporate Real Estate and Facility Management Leverage Use of RFID 78

Theft Detection and Mitigation 78

Asset Management 79

Personnel and Guest Access and Tracking 79

Move Management 79

RFID with Sensors 79

Components of RFID 80

Applications (Middleware) 80

RFID Interrogators or Readers 81

RFID Tags 81

Extra Sensory Identification to Optimize FM Operation 82

Conclusion 83

CHAPTER 6 Information and Communications Technology 85
Richard Hodges

Summary 85

Introduction 86

Technology Primer: Wired ICT Networks in Buildings 88

Wireless Networks: A Quick Review 89

ICT Networks in Buildings-A Changing Paradigm 91

Overbuilding 91

Inflexibility 91

Lack of Integrated Planning 91

ICT Networks in Buildings-New Design Concepts 92

New Design Concepts in Practice: Case Studies 93

Elementary School 93

Research Laboratory 94

Commercial Office 95

Conclusion 95

CHAPTER 7 Workflow Technology-Knowledge in Motion 97
Paul Head

Introduction 97

Technology Evolution 98

Foundations 98

Formalization 99

Trends Driving Workflow Automation 100

Business: Economy and Efficiency 101

Facilities: Business Objectives and Environmental Awareness 102

Workflow Explained 103

Types 103

Transactional Activities 103

Systematic Activities 104

Guidelines 105

FM Community Workflow Technology Case Studies 106

Facilities Move Management 107

Vendor Bid and Selection Management 108

Knowledge in Motion 112

PART 2: Applications

CHAPTER 8 Sustainability 115
Louise A. Sabol

Overview 115

Sustainability for Buildings 116

Certification for Sustainability 116

ENERGY STAR Building Certification 118

Assessment and Planning 118

Software for Sustainable Facilities Management 120

The Importance of Visualization 121

Life-Cycle Cost Analysis 123

CarbonGreenhouse Gas Calculations 125

Enterprise Software Applications 126

Energy Analysis Tools and Applications 126

Building Information Model 127

The Future 129

Management of Sustainability 129

Building Performance and Monitoring 129

Building Commissioning 130

Data Management 130
Case Study: The State of Missouri Building Information Management System 130

Project Details 131

Project Results 132

Further Development 133

CHAPTER 9 Condition Assessment in Facility Asset Management 137
James B. Clayton

Background 137

Asset Management 138

Adapting Asset Management Principles to Facilities Management 141

Phases of the Facility Asset Management Process 142

Phase 1: Executive Direction 142

a. Goals and Policies 142

b. Standards 142

c. Schedules 142

Phase 2: Collect Data and Compute Metrics 143

Phase 3: Create Business Intelligence 143

Phase 4: Support Decision Making 143

Condition Assessment in Facility Asset Management 144

Overview of Facility Condition Assessment 144

Building Condition Assessment Methods and Techniques 145

Origin of the Monetary Method for Building Condition Assessment 146

Foundation of the Monetary Method: Backlog and FCI 146

The Deficiency-Based Technique 149

Phases of the Deficiency-Based Technique 150

Phase 1: Executive Direction 150

Phase 2: Collect Data and Compute Metrics 150

Phase 3: Create Business Intelligence 152

Dissatisfaction with the Expense of Deficiency-Based Techniques 152

Description of the Rating-Based Technique 154

Description of the Inventory-Based Technique 156

Dissatisfaction with the Monetary Method Spurs Research 158

The Engineered Method-Product of Published Government Research 159

Differences between Knowledge-Based and Deficiency-Based Techniques 160

Phase 1: Executive Direction 162

Phase 2: Collect and Process Data 163

Additional Benefits of the Engineered Method 165

Deciding Which Technique Is Best for Your Organization 166

Organizations that Should Consider Using the Deficiency-Based Technique 168

Organizations that Should Consider Using Rating-Based or Inventory-Based Techniques 168

Organizations that Should Consider Using the Engineered Method 169

Conclusion 169

CHAPTER 10 Computer Modeling 171
Eric Teicholz

Introduction 171

Computer Models and Simulation - A Brief Overview 171

Simulation 172

Models in Facility Management 173

Building Visualization: CAFM and BIM Models 173

Space Allocation Models 175

Desired Adjacency Requirements between Spatial Elements 175

Space Inventory Phase 176

Requirements Phase 176

Allocation Phase 177

Planning Phase 178

Facility Asset Management Models 179

Computer Models that Make FAM Data Collection More Affordable 180

Creating Physical Characteristic Data with Building Templates 180

Using Templates to Create Whole Facility Inventories 180

Using Templates to Create System Inventories 181

Generating Lean, "Just-in-Time" Data Collection Schedules 182

Models that Efficiently Compute FAM Metrics 183

Performance Metrics 183

Business Alignment Metrics 184

Models that Create Business Intelligence from Computed Metrics and Other Data 185

FAM Modeling Summary 185

Energy Models 185

Conclusion 190

CHAPTER 11 Technology and the Workplace 191
Erik Jaspers and Eric Teicholz

Introduction 191

Definition of Workplace 192

Wireless Networking 194

Current Workplace Issues 195

Involvement of Facility Managers 197

Technology Landscape 200


Building Information Modeling 200

Building Automation Systems 205

Access and Security Management Systems 206

Geographic Information Systems 207

Digital Signage 212

Sustainability and Energy Management at the Workplace 213

Emerging Technologies 217

Smart Infrastructures 217

Applications of Sensor Networking Around the Workplace 218

Energy Management: Smart Grids 222

Cloud Computing 223

Radio Frequency Identification 224

Mobility 226

Conclusion 227

CHAPTER 12 The Role of People and Process in Technology 229
Angela Lewis

Introduction 229

Energy and Maintenance Management Technologies 230

Current Needs 231

Process Needs 231

Establishing Project Goals 232

Beyond Benchmarking: A Need for Data-Driven Decision Making 235

People and Technology Needs 236

Overcoming Resistance to Change 236

Training and Education 237

Processes and People Need to Support Emerging Technologies 237

Impacts of Process on Building Information Modeling 238

High-Performance, Green, and Smart Buildings Require Data-Driven Processes 238

Case Studies 239

A Focus on Processes: Use of a Building Automation System to Benchmark Energy Consumption 239

A Focus on People: Software Integration 241

Conclusion 243

CHAPTER 13 Social Media 245
Dean Stanberry

Introduction 245

Social Media: Revolution or Evolution? 245

Getting Connected 247

Information Services Rise Up 248

Birth of the World Wide Web 248

Web 1.0 Web 2.0 250

FM-Focused Social Media 251

Print Media Goes Digital 252

Internet Forums 254

Blogs 256

Wikis 260

Podcasts, Video, Pictures, Rating, and Social Bookmarking 261

Section Notes 262

Making Social Media Work for You 262

Why Does It Matter? 262

Which Ones Are for Me? 264

What If I Don't Want to be Found? 264

Have a Networking Strategy 265

Get LinkedIn and Like it. . . 266

Building Your Network 268

LinkedIn Facts 268

Tips for Job Seekers 271

Closing Thoughts 272



About the Author

The International Facility Management Association (IFMA) is the world's largest and most widely recognized international association for professional facility managers, supporting more than 20,000 members in seventy-eight countries.

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