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Understanding Music
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PrefaceForeword Chapter 1Music Around the WorldIntroduction to the Study of MusicMusic as a Reflection of SocietyThe United States: A Test CaseWorld Music: A View from a SatelliteWhat to Listen for in World MusicAttitude Toward Music of the PastTextureMelodyRhythmTone Color: Voices and InstrumentsSocial ContextAttitudes Toward the Participation of WomenTimeListening to Music from Around the WorldJapanese Shakuhachi MusicListening GuideListening Sketch for Shakuhachi Music"Koku-Reibo" (A Bell Ringing in the Empty Sky)Music and IslamGamelan Music from the Indonesian Island of JavaListening GuideListening Sketch for a Turkish Call to PrayerAfrican Drumming and Mbira MusicListening GuideListening Sketch for Javanese Gamelan MusicGangsaran - Bima Kurda - GangsaranListening GuideListening Sketch for Mbira Music"Mandarendare" (A Place Full of Energy)Conclusion Chapter 2The Elements of MusicWhat Is Music?The Elements of MusicMelodyPitchNote NamesIntervalsDynamicsListening GuideGeorge Frideric Handel (1685-1759)From the Water MusicRhythmBeatMeasure and MeterSyncopationTempoListening GuideGeorge Frideric Handel (1685-1759)From the Water MusicHarmonyKeynoteKeys and ScalesMajor and Minor ScalesRelated KeysChordsCadencesTextureListening GuideGeorge Frideric Handel (1685-1759)From the Water MusicMusical FormJazz and Rock FormsSoundMaking Music: VoicesMaking Music: InstrumentsThe OrchestraStringsWoodwindsBrass InstrumentsPercussion InstrumentsKeyboard InstrumentsMusical PerformanceRehearsalAttending a ConcertEmotion in MusicLive PerformancesHistorical Periods and Individual StyleListening GuideGeorge Frideric Handel (1685-1759)From the Water Music Chapter 3The Art of ListeningSound, Rhythm, and DynamicsListening GuidePaul Dukas (1865-1935)Fanfare from La PeriMusic and Words: Melody, Harmony, DissonanceListening GuideFranz Schubert (1797-1828)Song for voice and piano, Gretchen am Spinnrade (Gretchen at the Spinning Wheel)A Symphonic MinuetListening GuideWolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)Minuet and Trio from Symphony No. 18 in F Major, K. 130Keys and CadencesMore on Beats, Meter, Form, and Tone ColorListening GuideBenny Harris (1919-1975)CrazeologyWord-Painting, Texture, and ChromaticismListening GuideMaddalena Casulana (c. 1540-c. 1590)Madrigal, Morte, te chiamo (Death, I Call on You)Special Box FeatureA Lesson in Music Chapter 4The Middle Ages: 400-1400General Characteristics of Medieval MusicThe Music of the Middle AgesI: PlainchantListening GuideKyrie (plainchant)II: Secular Song and PolyphonySecular SongListening GuideBeatriz de Dia (late twelfth century)Song, "A chantar"PolyphonyListening GuidePerotinus (c. 1170-c. 1236)Viderunt Omnes (four-voice polyphony for the Cathedral of Notre Dame)Late Medieval Polyphonic SongListening GuideGuillaume de Machaut (c. 1300-1377)Secular song (rondeau) Doulz Viaire GracieusThe End of the Middle AgesSpecial Box FeatureComposers, Patrons, and Audiences: The Medieval AudienceStyle SummaryThe Middle Ages Chapter 5The Renaissance: 1400-1600Life and Times in the RenaissanceRenaissance MusicGeneral Characteristics of Renaissance MusicMusic in the Early RenaissanceThe Renaissance MassThe Mid-RenaissanceJosquin Desprez (c. 1440-1521)Josquin's Pange Lingua MassListening GuideThomas Aquinas (1225-1274)Plainchant hymn, Pange LinguaListening GuideJosquin Desprez (c. 1440-1521)Kyrie from the Pange Lingua MassThe Late RenaissanceSpecial Box FeatureComposers, Patrons, and Audiences: PatronageThe Counter-Reformation and the Music of PalestrinaThe Renaissance MotetThe Renaissance Secular SongListening GuideGiovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c. 1525-1594)Motet, Exsultate DeoThe MadrigalListening GuideThomas Morley (1557-1602)Two English MadrigalsThe Rise of Instrumental MusicListening GuideGiovanni Gabrieli (c. 1555-1612)Canzona Duodecimi ToniListening GuideTielman Susato (fl. 1543-1561)Ronde and SaltarelleStyle Summary The Renaissance Chapter 6The Baroque Era: 1600-1750Life in the Baroque EraSpecial Box FeatureComposers, Patrons, and Audiences: Audiences in the Baroque EraGeneral Characteristics of Baroque MusicThe Early Baroque (1600-1700)Monteverdi and the First Great OperaThe Story of the OperaListening GuideClaudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)Orfeo's recitative, Euridice's recitative, chorus of nymphs and shepherds, and instrumental ritornello from the opera OrfeoOpera in the Seventeenth CenturyHenry Purcell and English OperaListening GuideHenry Purcell (1659-1695)Dido's lament from the opera Dido and AeneasSonata and ConcertoListening GuideArcangelo Corelli (1653-1713)Trio Sonata, Op. 3, No. 7, for two violins and basso continuoFrench MusicThe Late Baroque (1700-1750)Late Baroque OperaThe Late Baroque ConcertoAntonio Vivaldi (1678-1741)Listening GuideAntonio Vivaldi (1678-1741)First Movement from Violin Concerto, Op. 8, No. 1, La Primavera ("Spring"), from The Four SeasonsJohann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)Bach's Organ MusicListening GuideJohann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)Prelude and Fugue in E MinorBach's Keyboard, Instrumental, and Orchestral MusicListening GuideJohann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)First Movement from Brandenburg Concerto No. 2 in F MajorBach's Vocal Church MusicListening GuideJohann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)St. Matthew Passion (excerpt)George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)Handel's MusicListening GuideGeorge Frideric Handel (1685-1759)Giulio Cesare, Act III, Scene 4Listening GuideGeorge Frideric Handel (1685-1759)"Halleluyah" Chorus from MessiahStyle SummaryThe Baroque Era Chapter 7The Classic Era: 1750-1800From Absolutism to Enlightenment to RevolutionThe Musical PublicGeneral Characteristics of Classic MusicGenres of Classic MusicOperaListening GuideGiovanni Pergolesi (1710-1736)Opera, La Serva Padrona (Duet from Act I)SymphonyChamber MusicConvention in Classic MusicForms of Classic MusicSonata FormAria FormMinuet-and-Trio FormRondo FormSummaryThe Early Classic PeriodThe Classic MastersFranz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)Special Box FeatureComposers, Patrons, and Audiences: The Classic OrchestraHaydn's MusicListening GuideFranz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)Minuet and Trio from Symphony No. 45 in F-sharp MinorListening GuideFranz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)Fourth Movement from String Quartet, Op. 33, No. 2, in E MajorWolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)Special Box FeatureComposers, Patrons, and Audiences: Composers and Patrons in the Classic EraMozart's MusicListening GuideWolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)Second Movement from Piano Concerto No. 21 in C Major, K. 467Listening GuideWolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)First Movement from Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, K. 550Style SummaryThe Classic Era Chapter 8BeethovenBeethoven's LifeBeethoven's Early LifeThe Heroic PhasePersonal Crisis and Halt to ProductivityLate YearsBeethoven's MusicListening ExamplesSpecial Box FeatureComposers, Patrons, and Audiences: Beethoven's OrchestraListening GuideLudwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)Six Easy Variations on a Swiss Tune in F Major for Piano, WoO 64Beethoven's Fifth SymphonyListening GuideLudwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)Symphony No. 5 in C MinorBeethoven's Late MusicListening GuideLudwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)Third Movement from Piano Sonata in E Major, Op. 109Style SummaryBeethoven Chapter 9The Nineteenth Century I: Early Romantic MusicThe Age of RomanticismThe Industrial RevolutionPolitical, Intellectual, and Social ChangesThe New Artistic SpiritMusic for AllThe New SoundDynamicsTempo and ExpressionMelodyHarmonyFormProgram MusicMassive and MiniatureFavorite Romantic GenresFavorite Romantic InstrumentsThe Individual and the CrowdWomen in Nineteenth-Century MusicRomantic SongEarly RomanticismFranz Schubert (1797-1828)Schubert's MusicListening GuideFranz Schubert (1797-1828)Song, "Die Forelle" ("The Trout")Listening GuideFranz Schubert (1797-1828)Fourth Movement from Quintet in A Major, D. 667 (The Trout)Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)Berlioz's MusicListening GuideHector Berlioz (1803-1869)First Movement from Symphonie fantastique (Fantastical Symphony)Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847)Mendelssohn's MusicListening GuideFelix Mendelssohn (1809-1847)First Movement from Concerto in E Minor for Violin and Orchestra, Op. 64Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel (1805-1847)Listening GuideFanny Mendelssohn Hensel (1805-1847)Lied from Songs without Words, Op. 8, No. 3Special Box Feature Composers, Patrons, and Audiences: Music for the Middle ClassesFryderyk Chopin (1810-1849)Chopin's MusicListening GuideFryderyk Chopin (1810-1849)Prelude in E Minor, Op. 28, for PianoListening GuideFryderyk Chopin (1810-1849)Waltz in D Major, Op. 64, No. 1, for Piano Solo (Minute Waltz)Robert Schumann (1810-1856)Schumann's MusicListening GuideRobert Schumann (1810-1856)Traumerei (Dreaming), from Kinderszenen, Op. 15, for PianoClara Schumann (1819-1896)Listening GuideClara Schumann (1819-1896)Third Movement from Trio in G Minor for Piano, Violin, and CelloStyle SummaryThe Nineteenth Century I: Early Romantic Music Chapter 10The Nineteenth Century II:Mid- to Late-Romantic MusicWorks for Solo PianoSymphonic Program MusicOperaNationalismFranz Liszt (1811-1886)Liszt's MusicListening GuideFranz Liszt (1811-1886)Transcendental etude No. 10 in F MinorListening GuideFranz Liszt (1811-1886)Symphonic Poem, HamletVerdi and WagnerGiuseppe Verdi (1813-1901)Verdi's MusicListening GuideGiuseppe Verdi (1813-1901)Otello (Excerpt)Richard Wagner (1813-1883)Wagner's MusicListening GuideRichard Wagner (1813-1883)Prelude and Liebestod from the Music Drama Tristan und IsoldeThe Nationalist ComposersRussiaBohemiaMoraviaListening GuideBedCrich Smetana (1824-1884)Symphonic Poem, The MoldauScandinaviaSpainFrancePyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)Tchaikovsky's MusicListening GuidePyotr Ilyich TchaikovskyScene from Act II of the Ballet SwanLakeLate RomanticismJohannes Brahms (1833-1897)Brahms's MusicListening GuideJohannes Brahms (1833-1897)"Wiegenlied" ("Lullaby"), Op. 49, No. 4Listening GuideJohannes Brahms (1833-1897)Fourth Movement from Symphony No. 4 in E MinorGiacomo Puccini (1858-1924)Puccini's MusicListening GuideGiacomo Puccini (1858-1924)"Un bel di" ("One Fine Day") from Madama ButterflyGustav Mahler (1860-1911)Mahler's MusicListening GuideGustav Mahler (1860-1911)Fourth Movement, "Urlicht" ("Primeval Light")from Symphony No. 2 in C Minor (Resurrection)Style SummaryThe Nineteenth Century II: Mid- To Late-Romantic Music
Chapter 11The Twentieth Century I: The Classic SceneAn OverviewHistory and the Arts, 1900-19391939-2000General Characteristics of Twentieth-Century MusicThe Replacement of TonalityMelodyRhythmLengthTone Color and SoundThe Beginnings of ChangeImpressionism and SymbolismClaude Debussy (1862-1918)Listening GuideClaude Debussy (1862-1918)Prelude a l'apres-midi d'un faunePrimitivismIgor Stravinsky (1882-1971)Listening GuideIgor Stravinsky (1882-1971)Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rite of Spring), Opening SectionStravinsky and Neo-ClassicismListening GuideIgor Stravinsky (1882-1971)Stravinsky's MusicExpressionismArnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)Schoenberg's MusicListening GuideArnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)"Madonna" from Pierrot LunaireListening GuideArnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)Theme and Sixth Variation from Variations for Orchestra, Op. 31Schoenberg's StudentsAlban Berg (1885-1935)Berg's MusicWozzeckListening GuideAlban Berg (1885-1935)Wozzeck, Act III, Scenes 4 and 5Anton Webern (1883-1945)Webern's MusicListening GuideAnton Webern (1883-1945)Third Movement from Five Movements for String Quartet, Op. 5Other Composers Active before World War II: Bartok, Shostakovich, Britten, Ives, CoplandBela Bartok (1881-1945)Bartok's MusicListening GuideBela Bartok (1881-1945)Fifth Movement (Allegro molto) from String Quartet No. 4Dmitri Shostakovich (1906-1975)Benjamin Britten (1913-1976)Listening GuideBenjamin Britten (1913-1976)Sanctus fromWar RequiemThe American SceneCharles Ives (1874-1954)Listening GuideCharles Ives (1874-1954)Second Movement from Three Places in New England ("Putnam's Camp, Redding, Conn.")Aaron Copland (1900-1990)Listening GuideAaron Copland (1900-1990)Fanfare for the Common ManBuilding BridgesGeorge Gershwin (1898-1937)Listening GuideGeorge Gershwin (1898-1937)"Bess, You Is My Woman Now" from Porgy and BessLeonard Bernstein (1918-1990)Listening GuideLeonard Bernstein (1918-1990)"America" from West SideStorySpecial Box FeatureComposers, Patrons, and Audiences: Audiences for Music in the Twentieth CenturyAfter the War: Modernism, the Second StageTotal SerialismListening GuidePierre Boulez (b. 1925)Structures IThe Radical Sixties: New Sounds, Freedom, and ChanceNew SoundsListening GuideKrzysztof Penderecki (b. 1933)Threnody for the Victims of HiroshimaFreedom and ChanceSpecial Box FeatureThe Twentieth-Century OrchestraListening GuideJohn Cage (1912-1922)Sonata III from Sonatas and Interludes for Prepared PianoPostmodernismPostmodern MusicListening GuideLukas Foss (b. 1922)Third Movement (Recitative-after Monteverdi) from Renaissance Concerto for Flute and OrchestraFusionInclusionListening GuidePauline Oliveros (1932)Sound PatternsListening GuideOlly Wilson (b. 1937)SometimesListening GuideJoan Tower (b. 1938)WingsListening GuideEllen Taaffe Zwilich (b. 1939)Third Movement (Rondo) from Symphony No. 1ConclusionStyle SummaryThe Twentieth Century Chapter 12The Twentieth Century II: Jazz, An American OriginalThe History of JazzOriginsBand MusicRagtimeListening GuideScott Joplin (1868-1917)Maple Leaf Rag, for Piano soloThe BluesListening GuideBessie Smith (1894-1937)"Florida-Bound Blues"New Orleans JazzListening GuideLouis Armstrong (1900-1971)"Hotter Than That"SwingListening GuideDuke Ellington (1899-1974)"It Don't Mean A Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing)"BebopListening GuideThe Charlie Parker Quartet"Confirmation"Cool JazzListening GuideBill Evans"Blue in Green" from Kind of BlueFree JazzFusionThe Current SceneListening GuideWynton Marsalis"Harriet Tubman"Style SummaryJazz Chapter 13The Twentieth Century III: Popular Music in the United StatesStyles of Popular MusicBeginnings: 1850-1950Special Box FeatureComposers, Patrons, and Audiences: Patronage and CommercializationListening Guide"Blue Moon"Music by Richard Rodgers, words by Lorenz HartThe Fortunate FiftiesRock and Roll: The BeginningsListening GuideChuck Berry"Johnny B. Goode"Elvis PresleyListening GuideElvis Presley"Blue Suede Shoes"RebellionEarly Rock and Roll: Structure and StyleEarly Rock and Roll: Black and WhiteThe Turbulent SixtiesThe BeatlesListening GuideThe Beatles "It Won't Be Long"Listening GuideThe Beatles "Strawberry Fields Forever"Bob DylanListening GuideBob Dylan "Sad-eyed Lady of the Lowlands"Jimi HendrixOther Trends in the SixtiesMotownSurfing SongsFolkCountryThe 1970s and 1980s: Variety, Legacy, and ChangeListening GuideMichael Jackson "Billie Jean"Listening GuideMadonna "Material Girl"The Nineties: Rap, Rage, and ReactionStyle SummaryPopular MusicGlossary and Musical LocatorCreditsIndex

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