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Understanding Music Understanding Music


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Table of Contents

1. Music Around The World.

Introduction to the Study of Music. Music as a Reflection of Society. Listening to Music from Around the World. Listening Sketch for Shakuhachi Music: Koku-Reibo. Listening Sketch for Javanese Gamelan Music: Gangsaran-Bima Kurda-Gangsaran. Listening Sketch for Mbira Music: Mandarendare.

2. Fundamentals.

The Elements of Music. Musical Form. Making Music: Voices. Making Music: Instruments. The Orchestra. Rehearsals. Emotion in Music. Performances. Historical Periods and Individual Style.

3. The Art of Listening.

Sound, Rhythm, and Texture. Paul Dukas, Fanfare from La Peri. Music and Words, Key, Dissonance. Franz Schubert, Song for Voice and Piano, Gretchen am Spinnrade (Gretchen at the Spinning Wheel). Form, Dynamics, Tempo, Meter, Cadences, and Key. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Minuet and Trio from Symphony No. 18 in F Major, K.130. Beats, Meter, Form, and Tone Color. Benny Harris, Crazeology. Texture, Chromaticism, and Word-Painting. Maddalena Casulana, Madrigal,Morte, te Chiamo (Death, I Call on You). Alastair Reid, "A Lesson in Music."

4. The Middle Ages: 400-1400.

General Characteristics of Medieval Music. The Music of the Middle Ages. Kyrie (plainchant). Beatriz de Dia, Song, A chantar. Perotinus, Viderunt Omnes. Guillaume de Machaut, Secular Song (rondeau), Doulz Viaire Gracieus. Style Summary: The Middle Ages.

5. The Renaissance: 1400-1600.

Life and Times in the Renaissance. General Characteristics of Renaissance Music. Music in the Early Renaissance. The Mid-Renaissance. Thomas Aquinas, Plainchant hymn, Pange Lingua. Josquin Desprez, Kyrie from the Pange Lingua Mass. The Late Renaissance. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Motet, Exsultate Deo. Thomas Morley, Two English Madrigals. Giovanni Gabrielli, Canzona Duodecimi Toni. Tielman Susato, Ronde and Saltarelle. Style Summary: The Renaissance.

6. The Baroque Era: 1600-1750.

Life in the Baroque Era. General Characteristics of Baroque Music. The Early Baroque (1600-1700). Claudio Moneverdi, Excerpts from the Opera Orfeo. Henry Purcell, Dido's Lament from the Opera Dido and Aeneas. Arcangelo Corelli, Trio Sonata, Op. 3, No. 7, for Two Violins and Basso Continuo. The Late Baroque (1700-1750). Antonio Vivaldi, First Movement from Violin Concerto, Op. 8, No. 1, La Primavera ("Spring"), from The Four Seasons. Johann Sebastian Bach, Prelude and Fugue in E Minor. Johann Sebastian Bach, First Movement from Brandenburg Concerto No. 2 in F Major. Johann Sebastian Bach, St. Matthew Passion (Excerpt). George Frideric Handel, Giulio Cesare, Act III, Scene 4. George Frideric Handel, "Halleluyah" chorus from Messiah. Style Summary: The Baroque Era.

7. The Classic Era: 1750-1800.

From Absolutism to Enlightenment to Revolution. General Characteristics of Classic Music. Giovanni Pergolesi, Opera, La Serva Padrona (Duet from Act I). The Classic Masters. Franz Joseph Haydn, Minuet and Trio from Symphony No. 45 in F-Sharp minor. Franz Joseph Haydn, Fourth Movement from String Quartet, Op. 33, No. 2, in E-Flat Major. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Second Movement from Piano Concerto No. 21 in C Major, K. 467. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, First Movement from Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, K. 550. Style Summary: The Classic Era.

8. Beethoven.

Beethoven's Life. Beethoven's Music. Ludwig Van Beethoven, Six Easy Variations on a Swiss Tune for Piano Solo. Ludwig Van Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C Minor. Ludwig Van Beethoven, Third Movement from Piano Sonata in E Major, Op. 109. Style Summary: Beethoven.

9. The Nineteenth Century.

The Age of Romanticism.

Part One: Early Romanticism.

Franz Schubert, Song, Die Forelle (The Trout). Franz Schubert, Fourth Movement from Quintet in A Major, D. 667 (The Trout). Hector Berlioz, First Movement from Symphonie Fantastique (Fantastical Symphony). Felix Mandelssohn, First Movement from Concerto in E Minor for Violin and Orchestra, Op. 64. Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel, Lied from Songs without Words, Op. 8, No. 3. Fryderyk Chopin, Prelude in E Minor, Op. 28, for piano. Fryderyk Chopin, Waltz in D-flat Major, Op. 64, No 1, for Piano Solo (Minute Waltz). Robert Schumann, Traumerei (Dreaming), from Kinderszenen, Op. 15, for Piano. Clara Schumann, Third Movement from Trio in G Minor for Piano, Violin, and Cello.

Part Two: Mid-Romanticism.

Franz Liszt, Transcendental Etude No 10 in F Minor. Franz Liszt, Symphonic Poem, Hamlet. Giuseppe Verdi, Otello (Excerpt). Richard Wagner, Prelude and Liebestod from the Music Drama Tristan und Isolde. Bedrich Smetana, Symphonic poem, The Moldau. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, First Movement from Symphony No. 4 in F Minor.

Part Three: Late Romanticism.

Johannes Brahms, Wiegenlied (Lullaby), Op. 49, No. 4. Johannes Brahms, Fourth Movement from Symphony No. 4 In E Minor. Giacomo Puccini, Un bel di (One Fine Day) from Madama Butterfly. Gustav Mahler (1860-1911). Gustav Mahler, Fourth Movement, Urlicht (Primeval Light) from Symphony No. 2 in C minor (Resurrection). Style Summary: The Nineteenth Century.

10. The Twentieth Century I: The Classical Scene.

An Overview. General Characteristics of Twentieth-Century Music. Impressionism and Symbolism. Claude Debussy, Prelude a L'apres-midi d'un faune. Primitivism. Igor Stravinsky, Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rite of Spring), Opening Section. Igor Stravinsky, First Movement from Concerto In E-Flat (Dumbarton Oaks) for Chamber Orchestra. Expressionism. Arnold Schoenberg, Madonna from Pierrot Lunaire. Arnold Schoenberg, Theme and Sixth Variation from Variations forOrchestra, Op 31. Alban Berg, Wozzeck, Act III, Scenes 3, 4, and 5. Anton Webern, Third Movement from Five Movements for String Quartet, Op. 5. Other composers active before World War II: Bartok, Shostakovich, Britten, Ives, Copland. Bela Bartok, Fifth Movement (Allegro molto) from String Quartet No. 4. Benjamin Britten, Sanctus from War Requiem. Charles Ives, Second Movement from Three Places in New England ("Putnam's Camp, Redding, Conn"). Aaron Copland, Fanfare for the Common Man. Building Bridges. George Gershwin, "Bess, You Is My Woman Now" from Porgy and Bess. Leonard Bernstein, "Make Our Garden Grow," from Candide. After the War: Modernism, The Second Stage. Pierre Boulez, Structures I. Krzysztof Penderecki, Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima. Postmodernism. Lukas Foss, Third Movement (Recitative -after Monteverdi) from Renaissance Concerto for Flute and Orchestra. Inclusion. Pauline Oliveros, Sound Patterns. Olly Wilson, Sometimes. Joan Tower, Wings. Ellen Taaffe Zwilich, Third Movement (Rondo) from Symphony No. 1. Conclusion. Style Summary: The Twentieth Century.

11. The Twentieth Century II: Jazz, An American Original.

The History of Jazz. Scott Joplin, Maple Leaf Rag, for Piano Solo. Bessie Smith, Florida-Bound Blues (Voice and Piano). Louis Armstrong, Hotter Than That. Duke Ellington, It Don't Mean a Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing). The Charlie Parker Quartet, Confirmation. Wynton Marsalis, Harriet Tubman. Style Summary: Jazz.

12. The Twentieth Century III: Popular Music.

Styles of popular music. Beginnings: 1850-1950. Frank Sinatra, Blue Moon. The Fortunate Fifties. Elvis Presley, Blue Suede Shoes. The Turbulent Sixties. The Beatles, It Won't Be Long. The Beatles, Strawberry Fields Forever. Bob Dylan, Sad-Eyed Lady of the Lowlands. The 1970s and 1980s: Variety, Legacy, and Change. Michael Jackson, Billie Jean. Madonna, Material Girl. The Nineties: Rap, Rage, and Reaction. Style Summary: Popular Music.

Glossary and Musical Example Locator.Credits.Index.

About the Author

Jeremy Yudkin was born in England and educated in England and the United States. He received his B.A. and M.A. in Classical and Modern Languages from Cambridge University and his Ph.D. in Historical Musicology from Stanford University. He has taught at the Palo Alto Community Adult School, San Francisco State University, the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris, Harvard University and, since 1982, at Boston University's School for the Arts and the Tanglewood Music Center. A recipient of fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities, Boston University's Society of Fellows, the Camargo Foundation, and the Marion and Jasper Whiting Foundation, he has written articles for the Journal of the American Musicological Society, the Journal of Musicology, the Musical Quarterly, Musica Disciplina, and Music and Letters, and contributed to several volumes of essays. His research specialties include the Middle Ages, early Beethoven, and jazz studies. A noted lecturer, Professor Yudkin has given talks and presented papers across the United States and in Europe and Russia. He is the author of four previous books on various aspects of music and music history, including Music in Medieval Europe (Prentice Hall, 1989).

Dr. Yudkin is also an accomplished clarinetist, photographer, gardener, and soccer player. He and his wife, who is a teacher of French, have two children.

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