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Unifying Physics of Accelerators, Lasers and Plasma
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Table of Contents

Foreword

Preface

Author Basics of Accelerators and of the Art of Inventiveness Accelerators and society Acceleration of what and how Uses, actions and the evolution of accelerators Livingston plot and competition of technologies Accelerators and inventions How to invent How to invent - evolution of the methods TRIZ method TRIZ in action - examples TRIZ method for science AS-TRIZ Creativity Transverse Dynamics Maxwell equations and units Simplest accelerator Equations of motion Motion of charged particles in EM fields Drift in crossedxfields Motion in quadrupole fields Linear betatron equations of motion Matrix formalism Pseudo-harmonic oscillations Principal trajectories Examples of transfer matrices Matrix formalism for transfer lines Analogy with geometric optics An example of a FODO lattice Twiss functions and matrix formalism Stability of betatron motion Stability of a FODO lattice Propagation of optics functions Phase space Phase space ellipse and Courant-Snyder invariant Dispersion and tunes Dispersion Betatron tunes and resonances Aberrations and coupling Chromaticity Coupling Higher orders Synchrotron Radiation SR on the back of an envelope SR power loss Cooling time Cooling time and partition SR photon energy SR - number of photons SR effects on the beam SR-induced energy spread SR-induced emittance growth Equilibrium emittance SR features Emittance of single radiated photon SR spectrum Brightness or brilliance Ultimate brightness Wiggler and undulator radiation SR quantum regime Synergies between Accelerators, Lasers and Plasma Create Beam sources Lasers Plasma generation Energize Beam acceleration Laser amplifiers Laser repetition rate and efficiency Fiber lasers and slab lasers CPA - chirped pulse amplification OPCPA - optical parametric CPA Plasma oscillations Critical density and surface Manipulate Beam and laser focusing Weak and strong focusing Aberrations for light and beam Compression of beam and laser pulses Beam cooling Optical stochastic cooling Interact Conventional Acceleration Historical introduction Electrostatic accelerators Synchrotrons and linacs Wideroee linear accelerator Alvarez drift tube linac Phase focusing Synchrotron oscillations Waveguides Waves in free space Conducting surfaces Group velocity Dispersion diagram for a waveguide Iris-loaded structures Cavities Waves in resonant cavities Pill-box cavity Quality factor of a resonator Shunt impedance - Rs Energy gain and transit-time factor Kilpatrick limit Power sources IOT - inductive output tubes Klystron Magnetron Powering the accelerating structure Longitudinal dynamics Acceleration in RF structures Longitudinal dynamics in a travelling wave Longitudinal dynamics in a synchrotron RF potential - nonlinearity and adiabaticity Synchrotron tune and betatron tune Accelerator technologies and applications Plasma Acceleration Motivations Maximum field in plasma Early steps of plasma acceleration Laser intensity and ionization Laser pulse intensity Atomic intensity Progress in laser peak intensity Types of ionization Barrier suppression ionization Normalized vector potential Laser contrast ratio Schwinger intensity limit The concept of laser acceleration Ponderomotive force Laser plasma acceleration in nonlinear regime Wave breaking Importance of laser guidance Betatron radiation sources Transverse fields in the bubble Estimations of betatron radiation parameters Glimpse into the future Laser plasma acceleration - rapid progress Compact radiation sources Evolution of computers and light sources Plasma acceleration aiming at TeV Multi-stage laser plasma acceleration Beam-driven plasma acceleration Laser-plasma and protons Light Sources SR properties and history Electromagnetic spectrum Brief history of synchrotron radiation Evolution and parameters of SR sources Generations of synchrotron radiation sources Basic SR properties and parameters of SR sources SR source layouts and experiments Layout of a synchrotron radiation source Experiments using SR Compton and Thomson scattering of photons Thomson scattering Compton scattering Compton scattering approximation Compton scattering characteristics Compton light sources Free Electron Lasers FEL history SR from bends, wigglers and undulators Radiation from sequence of bends SR spectra from wiggler and undulator Motion and radiation in sine-like field Basics of FEL operation Average longitudinal velocity in an undulator Particle and field energy exchange Resonance condition Microbunching conceptually FEL types Multi-pass FEL Single-pass FEL Microbunching and gain Details of microbunching FEL low-gain curve High-gain FELs FEL designs and properties FEL beam emittance requirements FEL and laser comparison FEL radiation properties Typical FEL design and accelerator challenges Beyond the fourth-generation light sources Proton and Ion Laser Plasma Acceleration Bragg peak DNA response to radiation Conventional proton therapy facilities Beam generation and handling at proton facilities Beam injectors in proton facilities Plasma acceleration of protons and ions - motivation Regimes of proton laser plasma acceleration Sheath acceleration regime Hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration regime Light-sail radiation pressure acceleration regime Emerging mechanisms of acceleration Glimpse into the future Advanced Beam Manipulation, Cooling, Damping and Stability Short and narrow-band Bunch compression CSR - coherent synchrotron radiation CSR effects on the beam longitudinal phase space Short laser pulse and Q-switching techniques Q-switching methods Regenerative amplifiers Mode locking Self-seeded FEL Laser-beam interaction Beam laser heating Beam laser slicing Beam laser harmonic generation Stability of beams Stability of relativistic beams Beam-beam effects Beam break-up and BNS damping Landau damping Stability and spectral approach Beam or pulse addition Optical cavities Accumulation of charged particle bunches Coherent addition of laser pulses Resonant plasma excitation Cooling and phase transfer Beam cooling methods Electron cooling, electron lens and Gabor lens Laser cooling Local correction Final focus local corrections Interaction region corrections Travelling focus Crabbed collisions Round-to-flat beam transfer Inventions and Innovations in Science Accelerating Science TRIZ Trends and principles TRIZ laws of technical system evolution From radar to high-power lasers Modern laws of system evolution Engineering, TRIZ and science Weak, strong and cool Higgs, superconductivity and TRIZ Garin, matreshka and Nobel Aiming for Pasteur quadrant How to cross the Valley of Death How to learn TRIZ in science Let us be challenged Final Words Bibliography Index

About the Author

Andrei Seryi is currently director of the John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science and professor at the University of Oxford. He graduated from Novosibirsk State University in 1986 and received his Ph.D from the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in 1994. Until 2010, he worked at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, operated by Stanford University for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, where he led the design and first stages of implementation of the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests project and the beam delivery efforts for the linear collider. He also served as deputy spokesperson of the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) International Collaboration for the ATF2 project, is serving as a chairperson or is a member of a number of advisory committees, and is a fellow of the American Physical Society.

Reviews

"...Unifying Physics of Accelerators, Lasers and Plasma is a must-have for every student and practitioner of accelerator science. It is a quick reference guide and provides solid, intuitive discussions of what are often quite erudite concepts. I enthusiastically applaud this outstanding book."
-Sekazi Mtingwa in Physics Today, August 2016

"This book is, to my knowledge, the first to bridge the three disciplines of accelerators, lasers and plasmas. It fills a gap in the market and helps in developing a better understanding of the concepts used in the quest to build compact accelerators. It is an inspiring read that is suitable for both undergraduate and graduate students, as well as researchers in the field of plasma accelerators."
-Robert Bingham, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, CERN Courier, May 2016

"With Unifying Physics of Accelerators, Lasers and Plasma, Andrei Seryi has written a fascinating account. ... The book makes a bold and visionary pledge, which it claims could, if successful, transform science and our daily lives. Finally, the author's intention not only to unify accelerator, laser and plasma physics but also to accelerate the creation of novelty in science shows inspiring ways ahead. ... Andrei Seryi has written an important, insightful and visionary book. ... With his impressive wealth and breadth of knowledge, his mastery of the underlying quantitative formulation and an outstanding ability to connect not only dots but entire domains, there is a lot one can learn from this book and quite likely also from the author himself."
-The TRIZ Journal, March 2016

"A must-read book for college seniors and graduate students interested in cutting-edge topics in accelerator and beam physics. This field has become truly multidisciplinary where lasers and plasmas are featuring very prominently in new ideas for particle acceleration, focusing, and new light sources. Professor Seryi has covered the essential fundamentals of accelerators, lasers, and plasmas to prepare students for their research careers in modern science of particle accelerators."
-Professor Chandrashekhar Joshi, University of California, Los Angeles

"A wonderful source of inspiration for experts and novices alike, Andrei Seryi's book takes the reader on a fascinating journey from the beginning of accelerator science to today's most active research frontiers. Beside many other exciting topics, in this concise and enjoyable work, Seryi reviews the key elements of classical accelerators, beam optics, radiofrequency acceleration and technology, synchrotron radiation, beam instabilities, x-ray free-electron lasers, plasma acceleration, cancer therapy, advanced beam manipulation methods, and concepts of high-energy colliders, while frequently taking glimpses into the future. In this gem, Seryi, for the first time, discusses the three areas of accelerators, lasers, and plasmas from a unified perspective. ... The tantalizing reading experience is enhanced by many original and ingenious illustrations. ..."
-Frank Zimmermann, Senior Scientist, Beams Department, European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), and Editor of Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams (PRST-AB)

"This is a fun book to read, as well as educational. It is a textbook for a cross-disciplinary course, but it is also perfectly suitable for self-study. Its contents are quite unique and of interest for students preparing for research in a very promising and growing direction. ... Instead of detailed technical mathematics and derivations, this book emphasizes the underlying physics that advances concepts, supplemented by a large number of vivid illustrations. ... It encourages and challenges readers to look for their own inventions. ... The author also offers his answer to the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) exercise while challenging readers to do the same on their own. This is a very future-oriented book. For readers, be inspired, be challenged, and happy inventing!"
-Alex Chao, Professor, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, California, USA

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