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Urban Biodiversity and Design


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Table of Contents

Contributors ix Foreword xv Preface xvii Introduction 1 1 Urban Biodiversity and the Case for Implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity in Towns and Cities 3 Norbert Muller and Peter Werner Fundamentals of Urban Biodiversity 35 2 Biodiversity of Urban-Industrial Areas and its Evaluation - a Critical Review 37 Rudiger Wittig 3 Cultural Aspects of Urban Biodiversity 56 Andy Millard 4 Social Aspects of Urban Biodiversity - an Overview 81 Sarel Cilliers 5 Urban Biodiversity and Climate Change 101 David J. Nowak 6 Design and Future of Urban Biodiversity 118 Maria Ignatieva 7 Urban Patterns and Biological Diversity: A Review 145 Peter Werner and Rudolf Zahner History and Development of Urban Biodiversity 175 8 Urban Flora: Historic, Contemporary and Future Trends 177 Philip James 9 Environmental History and Urban Colonizations from an Avian Perspective 191 Timo Vuorisalo 10 Constraints of Urbanization on Vegetation Dynamics in a Growing City: A Chronological Framework in Rennes (France) 206 Vincent Pellissier, Francoise Roze and Phillipe Clergeau 11 Most Frequently Occurring Vascular Plants and the Role of Non-native Species in Urban Areas - a Comparison of Selected Cities in the Old and the New Worlds 227 Norbert Muller 12 Factors Influencing Non-Native Tree Species Distribution in Urban Landscapes 243 Wayne C. Zipperer Analysis and Evaluation of Biodiversity in Cities 253 13 Towards an Automated Update of Urban Biotope Maps Using Remote Sensing Data: What is Possible? 255 Mathias Bochow, Theres Peisker, Sigrid Roessner, Karl Segl and Hermann Kaufmann 14 Analysis of the Planted and Spontaneous Vegetation at Selected Open Spaces in Apipucos District of Recife, Brazil 273 Dietmar Sattler, Simone Schmidt and Marccus Vinicius da Silva Alves 15 Multivariate Approaches to the Study of Urban Biodiversity and Vegetation: An Example from a Southern Temperate Colonial City, Christchurch, New Zealand 291 Glenn H. Stewart, Maria Ignatieva and Colin D. Meurk 16 The Biodiversity of Historic Domestic Gardens - A Study in the Wilhelminian Quarter of Erfurt (Germany) 309 Norbert Muller 17 Old Masonry Walls as Ruderal Habitats for Biodiversity Conservation and Enhancement in Urban Hong Kong 323 C.Y. Jim 18 Green Roofs - Urban Habitats for Ground-Nesting Birds and Plants 348 Nathalie Baumann and Friederike Kasten 19 South Atlantic Tourist Resorts: Predictors for Changes Induced by Afforestation 363 Ana Faggi, Pablo Perepelizin and Jose R. Dadon Social Integration and Education for Biodiversity 381 20 Urban Green Spaces: Natural and Accessible? The Case of Greater Manchester, UK 383 Aleksandra Kazmierczak, Richard Armitage and Philip James 21 UrbanWastelands -A Chance for Biodiversity in Cities? Ecological Aspects, Social Perceptions and Acceptance of Wilderness by Residents 406 Juliane Mathey and Dieter Rink 22 Perception of Biodiversity - The Impact of School Gardening 425 Dorothee Benkowitz and Karlheinz Koehler 23 Landscape Design and Children's Participation in a Japanese Primary School - Planning Process of School Biotope for 5 Years 441 Keitaro Ito, Ingunn Fjortoft, Tohru Manabe, Kentaro Masuda, Mahito Kamada and Katsunori Fujiwara 24 Attracting Interest in Urban Biodiversity with Bird Studies in Italy 454 Marco Dinetti 25 Allotment Gardens as Part of Urban Green Infrastructure: Actual Trends and Perspectives in Central Europe 463 Jurgen H. Breuste Conservation, Restoration and Design for Biodiversity 477 26 Integration ofNatural Vegetation in Urban Design - Information, Personal Determination and Commitment 479 Clas Florgard 27 Prospects of Biodiversity in the Mega-City of Karachi, Pakistan: Potentials, Constraints and Implications 497 Salman Qureshi and Jurgen H. Breuste 28 Potential of Biodiversity and Recreation in Shrinking Cities: Contextualization and Operationalization 518 Dagmar Haase and Sophie Schetke 29 Near-Natural Restoration Strategies in Post-mining Landscapes 539 Anita Kirmer and Sabine Tischew 30 Restoration and Design of Calcareous Grasslands in Urban and Suburban Areas: Examples from the Munich Plain 556 Christine Joas, Johannes Gnadinger, Klaus Wiesinger, Rudiger Haase and Kathrin Kiehl 31 Contribution of Landscape Design to Changing Urban Climate Conditions 572 Katrin Hagen and Richard Stiles 32 Economics and the Convention on Biodiversity: Financial Incentives for Encouraging Biodiversity in Nagoya 593 Ryo Kohsaka Conclusions 608 Norbert Muller, Peter Werner and John G. Kelcey Index 611

About the Author

Norbert Muller: is Professor in Landscape Management and Restoration Ecology at the University of Applied Sciences Erfurt, Germany. He received a Diploma in Landscape Architecture from the Technical University Munich, a Ph.D. and a post doctoral lecture qualification in Vegetation Ecology from theTechnicalUniversityBerlin (Prof. Dr. Herbert Sukopp). He worked for 20 years in nature conservation research at the City Government Augsburg, Germany, with special emphasis in urban ecology, plant diversity, restoration ecology and ecological design. As an Associated Professor at the Yokohama National University, Japan he started between 1996 and 1997 the first urban biotope mapping in Tokyo. Current urban biodiversity studies he did in cities of South Africa (together with Sarel Cilliers),Italy, the United States and Germany. Since 2004 he compiles research projects on implementing the CBD in urban areas. Besides urban ecosystems natural disturbed ecosystems are another field of his interests, where he did numerous studies in the ecology of floodplain vegetation and the biology of key and invasive species. He serves in several advisory boards for nature conservation and is foundation member of the Competence Network Urban Ecology (CONTUREC). David Knight is the Team Leader for Biodiversity, Plants and Fungi with Natural England. David has worked for more than twenty years in biodiversity and nature conservation in England, particularly in urban areas. His experience ranges from the reclamation of colliery tips and derelict land to influencing policy for the conservation or urban biodiversity. David gained 'hands-on' experience from work in protecting and managing urban habitats with local government. He also worked on a major urban forestry project in West Yorkshire, the White Rose Forest, before going on to join English Nature as their Urban Adviser. This included acting as Executive Editor for the magazine 'Urbio'. More recently David has been involved in commissioning research into the biodiversity of urban domestic gardens, developing a performance indicator on biodiversity for local government in England and getting recognition for the value of open mosaic habitats on previously developed land in the UK Biodiversity Action Plan. Peter Werner is senior researcher at the Institute for Housing and Environment in Darmstadt, Germany. He started his scientific career with a research project about the ecological importance of industrial wastelands in the city ofBerlin in the years 1981 to 1983. Also, at this time Professor Herbert Sukopp and Peter Werner wrote the review "Nature in Cities" published by the European Council. Since 1983 he works at the Institute for Housing and Environment and his main research area is urban ecology in the widest sense including urban sustainable development. He was editor of several bibliographies and planning guides concerning urban ecology and published numerous papers in the area of urban nature and ecological development. In 2005 he founded together with other German scientists the competence network urban ecology CONTUREC, since then he is the executive secretary of CONTUREC.


"This book is an important contribution towards the aims of theurban sustainability concept and for the various disciplines whichshould be involved." ( Urban Ecology, 2010)

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