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The Use and Development of the Xinkan Languages
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Table of Contents

  • LIST OF FIGURES
  • LIST OF TABLES
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
  • CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE LANGUAGES AND THEIR SPEAKERS
    • 1.1. THE XINKAN LINGUISTIC CONTEXT
    • 1.2. PAST WORK WITH THE XINKAN LANGUAGES
    • 1.3. THE XINKAN SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT
    • 1.4. ORGANIZATION OF THE GRAMMAR
      • 1.4.1. Description of data sources
  • PART I. THE USE OF THE XINKAN LANGUAGES: SYNCHRONIC GRAMMAR
    • CHAPTER 2. PHONOLOGY
      • 2.1. VOWELS
        • 2.1.1. Vowel length
        • 2.1.2. Vowel Harmony
      • 2.2. CONSONANTS
        • 2.2.1. Guazacapan
        • 2.2.2. Chiquimulilla
        • 2.2.3. Jumaytepeque
        • 2.2.4. Yupiltepeque
        • 2.2.5. Consonant distribution
      • 2.3. PHONOLOGICAL ALTERNATIONS
        • 2.3.1. Glottalization
        • 2.3.2. Voicing of stop following a nasal
        • 2.3.3. Nasal assimilation
        • 2.3.4. Lenition to [h]
        • 2.3.5. Vowel raising
        • 2.3.6. Glottal-stop epenthesis
        • 2.3.7. Consonant dissimilation
        • 2.3.8. Guazacapan Consonant deletion
      • 2.4. SYLLABLE STRUCTURE
      • 2.5. STRESS
      • 2.6. ORTHOGRAPHY
    • CHAPTER 3. MORPHOLOGY
      • 3.1. NOUNS
        • 3.1.1. Possession
        • 3.1.2. Number
        • 3.1.3. Diminutive constructions
      • 3.2. ADJECTIVES
        • 3.2.1. Adjectives as modifiers of nouns
        • 3.2.2. Adjectives modified by ki 'very'
        • 3.2.3. Comparative and Superlative Constructions
      • 3.3. DETERMINERS
        • 3.3.1. Articles
        • 3.3.2. Demonstratives
        • 3.3.3. Quantifiers
      • 3.4. NOUN PHRASES
      • 3.5. PRONOUNS
        • 3.5.1. Independent personal pronouns
        • 3.5.2. Dependent pronouns
      • 3.6. VERBS
        • 3.6.1. Verb classes and transitivity
        • 3.6.2. Subject agreement
        • 3.6.3. Grammatical aspect
        • 3.6.4. Imperative form
        • 3.6.5. Constrastive construction in Guazacpan
        • 3.6.6. Tense
        • 3.6.7. Grammatical Voice
        • 3.6.8. Mood and modality
      • 3.7. RELATIONAL NOUNS
      • 3.8. VERBAL PARTICLES
        • 3.8.1. p'e/p'eh directional
        • 3.8.2. wa optative
        • 3.8.3. Negative imperative particle in Guazacapan
        • 3.8.4. Verbs borrowed from Spanish
      • 3.9. NOMINAL PARTICLES
        • 3.9.1. kumu 'as'
        • 3.9.2. ti'i- / t'i- direct object
        • 3.9.3. 'i- reflexive in Guazacapan
        • 3.9.4. ki'
        • 3.9.5. kiki-/kih
      • 3.10. QUESTION WORDS
      • 3.11. CONJUNCTIONS
      • 3.12. DERIVATIONAL MORPHOLOGY
        • 3.12.1. Noun derivations
        • 3.12.2. Adjective derivations
        • 3.12.3. Verbal derivation
    • CHAPTER 4. SYNTAX
      • 4.1. SYNTACTIC ALIGNMENT
        • 4.1.1. Grammatical relations
        • 4.1.2. Semantic relations
        • 4.1.3. Antipassive and verb agreement
      • 4.2. SIMPLE SENTENCE FORMATION
        • 4.2.1. Sentences with verbs
        • 4.2.2. Copular sentences
      • 4.3. QUESTION FORMATION
        • 4.3.1. Yes/no questions
        • 4.3.2. Content questions (wh-questions)
      • 4.4. PREPOSING
      • 4.5. NEGATION
      • 4.6. COMPLEX SENTENCE FORMATION
        • 4.6.1. Conjoined clauses
        • 4.6.2. Serial verb constructions
        • 4.6.3. Relative clauses
        • 4.6.4. Complement clauses
        • 4.6.5. Adverbial clauses
        • 4.6.6. Conditional clauses
    • CHAPTER 5. TEXT
      • 5.1. NA MULHA UY
  • PART II THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE XINKAN LANGUAGES: DIACHRONIC GRAMMAR
    • CHAPTER 6. HISTORICAL PHONOLOGY
      • 6.1. INTRODUCTION
      • 6.2. COMMENTARY ON THE RECONSTRUCTION OF PROTO-XINKAN
      • 6.3. PROTO-XINKAN PHONOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION
        • 6.3.1Consonants
        • 6.3.2. Vowel changes
      • 6.4. SUMMARY OF SOUND CHANGES
      • 6.5. SUBGROUPING
      • 6.6. CONCLUSION
    • CHAPTER 7. HISTORICAL MORPHOLOGY
      • 7.1. PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL AFFIXES
        • 7.1.1. Pronouns
        • 7.1.2. Pronominal affixes
      • 7.2. BOUND MORPHOLOGY
    • CHAPTER 8. HISTORICAL SYNTAX
      • 8.1OVERVIEW OF SYNTACTIC RECONSTRUCTION
      • 8.2. XINKAN SYNTACTIC RECONSTRUCTION
        • 8.2.1. Syntactic alignment
        • 8.2.2. Verb classes
        • 8.2.3. Word order
        • 8.2.4. Nominal syntax reconstruction
    • CHAPTER 9. LOOKING FORWARD
  • APPENDIX
  • REGULAR VERB CONJUGATION
  • IRREGULAR VERB CONJUGATION
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • TYPOLOGICAL INDEX
  • TOPICAL INDEX
  • NOTES

Promotional Information

"This grammar/history is a very important addition to the literature. There is nothing like it. Given the extremely endangered state of the Xinkan languages, and because the author had access to important unpublished field notes on the languages, this book is of great significance." -- Nora C. England, Professor of Linguistics, University of Texas at Austin and author of A Grammar of Mam, a Mayan Language

About the Author

CHRIS ROGERS is a visiting professor of linguistics at Brigham Young University. He has served as Director of the Center for American Indian Languages at the University of Utah and has conducted extensive linguistic fieldwork in Mexico, Guatemala, Argentina, Peru, Brazil, and Venezuela.This book is a part of the Recovering Languages and Literacies of the Americas publication initiative, funded by a grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

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