About the Authors ix Preface xi Acknowledgments xv Part One Foundations of Value 1 WhyValueValue? 3 2 Fundamental Principles of Value Creation 17 3 Conservation of Value and the Role of Risk 35 4 The Alchemy of Stock Market Performance 49 5 The Stock Market Is Smarter Than You Think 65 6 Return on Invested Capital 93 7 Growth 115 Part Two Core Valuation Techniques 8 Frameworks for Valuation 135 9 Reorganizing the Financial Statements 165 10 Analyzing Performance 201 11 Forecasting Performance 221 12 Estimating Continuing Value 247 13 Estimating the Cost of Capital 269 14 Moving from Enterprise Value to Value per Share 301 15 Analyzing the Results 321 16 Using Multiples 331 17 Valuation by Parts 353 Part Three Advanced Valuation Techniques 18 Taxes 373 19 Nonoperating Items, Provisions, and Reserves 387 20 Leases and Retirement Obligations 405 21 Alternative Ways to Measure Return on Capital 423 22 Inflation 445 23 Cross-Border Valuation 459 24 Case Study: Heineken 481 Part Four Managing for Value 25 Corporate Portfolio Strategy 525 26 Performance Management 543 27 Mergers and Acquisitions 565 28 Divestitures 593 29 Capital Structure, Dividends, and Share Repurchases 611 30 Investor Communications 643 Part Five Special Situations 31 Emerging Markets 667 32 Valuing High-Growth Companies 691 33 Cyclical Companies 705 34 Banks 713 35 Flexibility 741 Appendix A Discounted Economic Profit Equals Discounted Free Cash Flow 775 Appendix B Derivation of Free Cash Flow, Weighted Average Cost of Capital, and Adjusted Present Value 781 Appendix C Levering and Unlevering the Cost of Equity 787 Appendix D Leverage and the Price-to-Earnings Multiple 795 Appendix E Other Capital Structure Issues 799 Appendix F Technical Issues in Estimating the Market Risk Premium 805 Index 809
McKINSEY & COMPANY is a management consulting firm that helps leading corporations and organizations make distinctive, lasting, and substantial improvements in their performance. Over the past seven decades, the firm's primary objective has remained constant: to serve as an organization's most trusted external advisor on critical issues facing senior management. TIM KOLLER is a partner in McKinsey's New York office. Tim has served clients in North America and Europe on corporate strategy and issues concerning capital markets, M&A transactions, and value-based management. He leads the firm's research activities in valuation and capital markets issues. He received his MBA from the University of Chicago. MARC GOEDHART is a senior expert in McKinsey's Amsterdam office. Marc has served clients across Europe on portfolio restructuring, issues concerning capital markets, and M&A transactions. He received a PhD in finance from Erasmus University Rotterdam. DAVID WESSELS is an adjunct professor of finance and director of executive education at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Named by BusinessWeek as one of America's top business school instructors, he teaches corporate valuation at the MBA and Executive MBA levels. David received his PhD from the University of California at Los Angeles.