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The Values-based Safety Process
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Table of Contents

Foreword by E. Scott Geller xi Preface xiii Acknowledgments xv CHAPTER 1 Safety Basics 1 1.1 Traditional Safety Programs 1 1.2 Du Pont's Success 4 1.3 Our Findings 6 1.4 The Safety Triangle 8 1.5 Complacency 8 1.6 Safety as a Team Process 9 1.7 Common Problems with Safety Efforts 11 1.8 Problems with Punishment 13 1.9 Appropriate Use of Punishment 16 1.10 Components of a Proven Safety Process 17 CHAPTER 2 The Vision 19 2.1 A Typical Week 19 CHAPTER 3 Value-Based Behavioral Safety Process 21 3.1 A Question of Balance 21 3.2 Ensure a Clear Mission or Vision Statement 24 3.3 Types of Mission and Vision Statements 25 3.4 What Is a Value? 26 3.5 Why Clarify Values? 27 3.6 Use a Proven Process and Build on Basic Values 27 3.7 Concluding Remarks on Values 28 CHAPTER 4 Behavioral Safety Process 29 4.1 What's in a Name? 30 4.2 Team-Based Process 30 4.3 Programs Versus Process 32 CHAPTER 5 Safety Assessment 33 5.1 What Is a Safety Assessment? 34 5.2 Why Conduct a Safety Assessment? 34 5.3 Who Should Conduct the Assessment? 35 5.4 Objectives of the Assessment 36 5.5 Outcome of the Assessment 39 5.6 Safety Assessment Process 40 How Do You Conduct a Safety Assessment? 40 Step 1: Review Safety Data 41 Step 2: Conduct Interviews 42 Step 3: Observe Safety Meetings, Safety Audits, and Safety 45 Step 4: Analyze Information and Develop and Improvement Plan 47 Step 5: Make the Final Report and Presentation 48 CHAPTER 6 Management Overview and Initial Workshops 51 6.1 What Is the Management Overview? 52 6.2 What Are the Objectives of the Management Overview? 52 6.3 What Is the Design Team Workshop? 53 6.4 What Are the Objectives of the Design Team Workshop? 53 6.5 What Is the Agenda? 53 CHAPTER 7 Final Design 55 7.1 What Are the Objectives of This Phase? 56 7.2 Design Team Process 57 7.3 Role of the Site Management Team 59 7.4 What Are the Steps in This Phase? 59 CHAPTER 8 Step 1: Establishing Mission, Values, and Milestone Targets 61 8.1 Clarifying Values: A Structured Approach 62 8.2 Step 1: Brainstorm Actions Likely to Impact the Process 63 8.3 Step 2: Pinpoint Those Practices 63 8.4 Step 3: Sort These Practices into ``Value'' Categories 63 8.5 Step 4: Use Values in Designing Your Safety Process 64 8.6 Step 5: Discuss Values During Kickoff Meetings and Training 65 8.7 Step 6: Use Values as Criteria for Evaluation 66 8.8 Establish a Milestone Schedule 66 CHAPTER 9 Step 2: Creating the Safety Observation Process 68 9.1 How Do You Create the Observation Process? 70 9.2 Analyze Past Incidents and Injuries 70 Practices in Work Areas 45 9.3 Develop a List of Critical Safe Practices 71 9.4 Draft and Revise Checklists 77 9.5 Develop the Observation Procedure 82 9.6 Feedback on Observations 88 9.7 Trial Run the Observation Checklist and Process 92 9.8 Conduct Management Review 93 CHAPTER 10 Step 3: Designing Feedback and Involvement Procedures 94 10.1 Develop Guidelines for Using Graphs 95 10.2 Plan Reviews of Safety Process Data 98 10.3 Develop Guidelines for Setting Improvement Goals 99 10.4 Establish Guidelines to Expand Involvement in Observations 100 10.5 Checklist for Planning Feedback and Involvement 101 CHAPTER 11 Step 4: Developing Recognition and Celebration Plans 102 11.1 Overview of Safety Awards and Incentives 104 11.2 Safety Recognition 104 11.3 Simple and Concurrent Safety Awards 106 11.4 Tiered Safety Awards 108 11.5 Support through Traditional Compensation 117 11.6 Safety Incentive Compensation 117 11.7 General Guidelines on Supporting Safety Motivation 119 CHAPTER 12 Step 5: Planning Training and Kickoff Meetings 120 12.1 Observer Training 121 12.2 Plan Kickoff Meeting(s) 122 12.3 Plan Training Needed to Support the Process 123 CHAPTER 13 Step 6: Conducting Management Review 125 CHAPTER 14 Implementing Behavioral Safety Process 128 14.1 Conduct Training for Steering Committees 129 14.2 Establish a Process Owner 130 14.3 Steering Committee's Responsibilities 130 14.4 Management's Responsibilities 134 CHAPTER 15 Maintaining the Behavioral Safety Process 135 15.1 Steering Committee Members' Responsibilities 136 15.2 Common Situations 138 15.3 Steering Committee's Responsibilities 138 15.4 Management's Responsibilities 141 CHAPTER 16 Some Final Suggestions on Implementation 143 CHAPTER 17 Special Topics: Safety Leadership 145 17.1 Biggest Barrier to Effective Safety Leadership 145 17.2 Other Barriers to Effective Safety Leadership 146 17.3 Leadership's Special Role 147 17.4 Phases of Management Support 148 17.5 Management's Most Important Role 149 17.6 Positive Questions 150 17.7 Formal Monitoring and Management Action Items 151 17.8 Role of Managers and Supervisors in Observations 152 17.9 Importance of Informal Leaders 153 17.10 Other Leadership Responsibilities 154 17.11 Safety Leadership Checklist 154 17.12 Concluding Comments on Leadership's Role 155 CHAPTER 18 Special Topics: Serious-Incident Prevention 157 18.1 Element 1: Build Management Commitment and Leadership 159 18.2 Element 2: Involve Employees 159 18.3 Element 3: Understand the Risks 160 18.4 Element 4: Identify Critical Work for Controlling the Risks 160 18.5 Element 5: Establish Performance Standards 160 18.6 Element 6: Maintain Measurement and Feedback Systems 161 18.7 Element 7: Reinforce and Implement Corrective Actions 161 18.8 Element 8: Improve and Update the Process 162 18.9 Implementation of the Serious-Incident Prevention Process: Pipeline Operations Case Study 162 CHAPTER 19 Special Topics: Self-Observation Process 169 19.1 What's My Job? 170 19.2 How Am I Doing? 170 19.3 What's In It for Me? 171 19.4 How to Implement a Self-Observation Process? 171 Select a Safety Representative from Each Work Group 171 Create an Index 172 Develop a Sampling Process 173 Post the Self-Observation Data 174 Provide Group and Individual Recognition 175 19.5 Final Suggestions on Self-Observations 177 CHAPTER 20 Special Topics: The Steering Committee 178 20.1 Creating the Steering Committee 178 20.2 Training the Steering Committee 179 20.3 Steering Committee Responsibilities 179 A. Managing Process Measures 179 B. Managing Behavioral Safety Measures 183 C. Managing Safety Results or Outcome Measures 183 20.4 Responsibility Summary 186 CHAPTER 21 Advanced Topics: Why It Works and Behavioral Basics 188 21.1 Pinpointing 188 21.2 ABC Analysis 190 21.3 Consequences 191 21.4 Antecedents 194 21.5 Individual Learning History 195 21.6 Behavioral Analysis Worksheet 196 21.7 Developing an Action Plan to Address Behavioral Causes 198 CHAPTER 22 Advanced Topics: Improvement Projects 199 22.1 Problem-Solving Steps 199 22.2 Methods of Gathering Additional Information 200 22.3 Identifying Weak or Missing Contingency Elements 202 22.4 Guidelines for Setting Goals 204 22.5 Guidelines for Recognition and Celebrations 205 CHAPTER 23 Other Support Programs 208 23.1 Additional Safety Process Components 208 23.2 Supplemental Safety Programs 208 23.3 Additional Safety Process Components 209 23.4 Common Support Programs 211 23.5 Coordinate Special Programs 214 CHAPTER 24 Long-Term Case Studies 216 24.1 Behavioral Safety in a Refinery 216 Phase 1: Pilot Area 216 Phase 2: Plantwide Implementation 218 24.2 Employee Safety Process at an Ore-Processing Facility 219 CHAPTER 25 Self-Observation Case Studies 223 25.1 Canadian Gas Production and Pipeline Company 223 25.2 Electric Utility 227 25.3 Logging Industry 229 CHAPTER 26 Small-Company Case Studies 234 26.1 Pipeline Company 234 26.2 Polyolefin Plant 235 26.3 Food-Processing Plant 237 CHAPTER 27 Observer Effect 240 CHAPTER 28 Original Case Studies 253 28.1 Employee Safety Process at a Gas Pipeline Company 254 28.2 Creating a Positive Safety Process 255 28.3 Lessons Learned in Enhancing Safety Performance in a Paper Mill 256 28.4 Behavioral Approach to Industrial Hygiene 259 28.5 Long-Term Effects of a Safety Reward Program in Open-Pit Mining 266 Appendix A: Sample Implementation Schedules 271 Appendix B: Selected Consultants Experienced in Implementing Behavioral Safety Processes 274 Appendix C: Unstructured Approach to Identifying and Defining Values 275 Clarifying your Values 275 Phase 1: Identify Your Basic Values 276 Phase 2: Pinpoint Practices That Exemplify Those Values 276 Phase 3: Provide Training on the New Values 277 Phase 4: Use the Values as Basic Ground Rules for Interactions 278 References 279 Index 283

About the Author

TERRY E. McSWEEN, PhD, is President and CEO of Quality Safety Edge, a company that specializes in the application of behavioral technology to create employee-driven safety and quality improvement efforts. He is also an active member in several business and professional organizations, including the Board of Trustees for the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies, the Association for Behavior Analysis, the American Society for Safety Engineers, and the Texas Association for Behavior Analysis.

Reviews

?...application of behavioral science to safety is stressed throughout the text....the overall value the book in promoting behavioral safety.? (Chemical Health & Safety, November/December 2003)

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