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The Welfare of Animals Used in Research


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Table of Contents

Foreword vii Preface ix Dedication and Acknowledgements xi 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Reasons for Using Animals in Research 1 1.2 Where Animal Research is Carried Out 3 1.3 Numbers of Animals Used 4 1.4 Harmful and Harmless Research 6 1.5 How Much Suffering is Caused by Research? 7 1.6 Attitudes to Animal Experimentation 9 1.7 The Moral Imperative 18 1.8 Trust in the System 22 2 The Use of Legislative and Other Controls on Animal Research to Meet Public Expectations and Improve Animal Welfare 26 2.1 Introduction 26 2.2 Levels of Control 29 2.3 Scope of Controls 37 2.4 Systems for Ethical Review and Authorisation 42 2.5 Performance and Engineering Standards 45 2.6 Roles and Responsibility 50 2.7 Legislation and Licences 51 2.8 Enforcement and Failure to Comply 52 3 Animal Rights and Animal Welfare: Philosophy and Science 58 3.1 Introduction 58 3.2 Animal Rights and Animal Welfare: Making a Distinction 59 3.3 Animal Welfare Science 63 3.4 Funding and Promoting Animal Welfare Research 85 3.5 The Benefits of Animal Welfare Science 86 4 Species Choice and Animal Welfare 88 4.1 Introduction 88 4.2 Consciousness/Sentience: Evidence for Protecting Particular Taxa 89 4.3 Are Some Species Capable of Suffering More Than Others? Neurological Complexity and Capacity to Suffer 104 4.4 Beastly Bias in Practice 108 4.5 An Evolutionary Approach to Assessing Suffering 120 5 The Harm?Benefit Judgement 123 5.1 Introduction 123 5.2 Who Should Be Involved? 126 5.3 Factors To Be Considered in Harm?Benefit Decisions 129 5.4 Decision Tools 154 5.5 The Requirement for Ethical Review 157 6 Improving the Welfare of Animals Used in Research: The 3Rs 159 6.1 Introduction: The Origins of the 3Rs 159 6.2 Replacement 163 6.3 Reduction 169 6.4 Refinement 175 6.5 Conflicts Between the 3Rs 201 6.6 Training 202 6.7 Sources of Information on the 3Rs 203 7 Science and Animal Welfare: A Partnership 205 7.1 Replacement Methods: Scientific and Other Advantages 205 7.2 Reduction: Scientific and Other Advantages 209 7.3 Refinement: Scientific and Other Advantages 210 7.4 Changes in Laboratory Animal Science and Challenges for the Future? 219 7.5 Maintaining the Momentum 223 7.6 Conclusion 224 References 226 Glossary 259 Index 262

About the Author

Robert Hubrecht OBE BSc PhD FSB is Deputy ScientificDirector of the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW)and is an acclaimed scholar in this area. He is a zoologistwho has specialised in ethology and applied ethology and hasstudied the behaviour and physiology of animals both in the wildand in the laboratory. He is co-editor of The UFAW Handbook onthe Care and Management of Laboratory and Other ResearchAnimals.


This book is geared toward members of institutionalanimal care and use committees, researchers, and veterinarians andis a practical guide for discussions pertaining to the welfare ofanimals used in research. (JAVMA, 15 December2014) To me, overall this is a very good book that provides abalanced view of the issues around animal welfare. It is agood read. (Laboratory Animal Practitioner, 1October 2014) Overall, the factual description of how animals are usedin research balanced by the author s personal experiences andperspective makes this book highly readable. TheWelfare of Animals used in Research is a great addition,which will be essential reading for those working with laboratoryanimals and of general interest to those new to thefield. (Veterinary Record, 12 July2014)

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