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Preface Introduction 1. The Biblical Views of Human Nature: Judaism and Christianity The Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) The Concept of Human Nature Rules for Successful Living The Prophets' Message Summary for Hebrew Bible The New Testament Christ and the Concept of Human Nature Jesus' Radical Message: Humanity is Made to Love Paul's Vision of Human Nature Justice and Responsibility (Mt. 25:14-30) Summary for New Testament 2. The Greek Tradition on Human Nature: The Sophists and Socrates The Rise of the Sophists Socrates' Simple Moralist View of Human Nature: Knowledge Is Virtue Socrates' Moral Philosophy: Virtue Is Knowledge Summary 3. Plato's Theory of Human Nature The Theory of Forms Plato's Theory of Recollection and A Priori Knowledge The Ascent to Knowledge Justice and Human Nature The Allegory of the Cave and the Meaning of Life Summary 4. Aristotle's Theory of Human Nature Introduction Plato and Aristotle The Nature of Ethics A Political Person The Functionalist Account of Human Nature What is the Good Life? The Ideal Type of Human Summary 5. St. Augustine's Theory of Human Nature Augustine's Life and Early Thought Evil and the Free Will Defense Augustine's Doctrine of Love as the Essence of Religion and Ethics The Doctrine of the Great Chain of Being Summary 6. The Hindu and Buddhist Theories of Human Nature Hinduism History and Main Ideas Metaphysics Epistemology Theory of Human Nature Morality, Dharma, and the Caste System Bhagavad Gita Conclusion to Hinduism Buddhism Life of Buddha Buddha's Teachings The Four Noble Truths Conclusion to Buddhism 7. Classical Conservative and Liberal Theories of Human Nature: Hobbes and Rousseau Thomas Hobbes: A Conservative Theory of Human Nature Introduction Hobbes' Account of Human Nature: Humans as Machines Hobbes' Account of Morality: The State of Nature Conclusion to Hobbes Jean Jacques Rousseau: A Liberal Theory of Human Nature Introduction Human Nature Is Good The Social Contract The Noble Savage and Emile Conclusion to Rousseau Summary: A Comparison Between Conservative and Liberal Perspectives 8. Immanuel Kant's Copernican Revolution The Kantian Epistemic Revolution Kant's Moral Theory: The Categorical Imperative Kant's Transcendental Apperception: The Elusive Self Freedom of the Will On God and Immortality Summary 9. Arthur Schopenhauer's Pessimistic Idealism Introduction The World as Idea The Will to Live Salvation from the Sufferings of Existence Morality Schopenhauer, Sex, and Psychoanalysis Summary 10. Karl Marx's Theory of Human Nature Introduction Ten Marxist Theses Secularity and Religion A Manifesto for a Revolutionary Program Conclusion Summary 11. Sigmund Freud's Theory of Human Nature: Pansexuality and Psychoanalysis Introduction The Trinity of Personality Id Ego Superego Sexuality Consciousness and the Unconscious Dreams as Wish Fulfillment Religion Civilization and Its Discontents Rival Psychoanalytic Theories Summary 12. The Existentialist Theory of Human Nature: Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Sartre Introduction Three Theses of Existentialism An Assessment of Existentialism Summary 13. The Darwinian Theory of Human Nature Introduction: The Shaking of the Foundations Darwinian Evolution Evolution and Evil Social Darwinism and Sociobiology Evolution and Ethics Summary 14. Human Nature in Contemporary Theories of the Mind Dualistic Interactionism The Classical Dualist Theory A Critique of Dualistic Interactionism Materialism Functionalism and Biological Naturalism Dualism Revisited Summary 15. The Paradox of Human Nature: Are We Free? Free Will and Determinism Libertarianism The Argument from Deliberation The Determinist's Objection to the Argument from Deliberation The Libertarian Counterresponse: Agent Causation Objection to Arguments from Introspection The Argument from Quantum Physics (A Peephole of Free Will) The Argument from Moral Responsibility Metaphysical Compatibilism Summary Conclusion What Is The Truth About Human Nature? Do We Have Free Will or Are We Wholly Determined by Antecedent Causes? What Is Our Telos or Destiny? What Can We Know? How Shall We Live? How Are the Two Sexes Related? What Is More Fundamental, the Individual or the Group? What Are Our Obligations to Others and How Far Do Our Ethical Obligations Extend? Glossary Index

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