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Wood - The Internal Optimization of Trees
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Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- 2 Mechanical Fundamentals.- 2.1 External Loading and Internal Stresses.- 2.2 Thermal Expansion and Thermal Stresses.- 2.3 The Finite-Element Method (FEM).- 2.4 Notches and Notch Stresses - The Component Killers.- 2.5 Crack Propagation.- 2.6 The Main Mechanical Aspects.- 3 The Mechanical Self-Optimization of Trees - Five Theorems.- 3.1 The Five Theorems.- 4 The Principle of Minimum Lever Arms.- 4.1 Negative Gravitropism.- 4.2 The Flexibility Strategy.- 5 The Axiom of Uniform Stress.- 5.1 The Undisturbed Design.- 5.2 Repair Growth.- 5.3 Computer-Aided Optimization - CAO.- 6 Parallel Fiber and Force Flow Arrangement.- 6.1 The Principal Stress Trajectories are Shear-Free Lines.- 6.2 Computer-Aided Internal Optimization - CAIO.- 6.3 Spindle Shapes - Advantages and Problems.- 6.4 Fiber Deviations.- 6.4.1 Mechanically Controlled Spiral Grain.- 6.4.2 Genetically Programmed Spiral Grain.- 6.4.3 The Risks of Spiral Grain.- 7 Tree Rings and Force Flow.- 7.1 Longitudinal Tree Ring Arrangement.- 7.2 Tangential Tree Ring Arrangement.- 8 Growth Stresses.- 8.1 Qualitative Description.- 8.2 Longitudinal Stresses.- 8.3 Lateral Stresses.- 8.4 Selected Techniques for Measuring Growth Stresses.- 8.4.1 Visual Evaluation.- 8.4.2 Measurement of Growth Stresses with an Increment Borer.- 8.4.3 Growth Stress Measurement with Prismatic Samples.- 8.4.4 Growth Stress Measurement Between Two Pocket Holes.- 8.4.5 Single-Hole Growth Stress Measurement.- 8.4.6 Tangential Growth Stress Measurement on Radial Saw Cuts.- 9 Stress-Controlled Strength Distribution.- 9.1 The Wood-Concrete Analogy.- 9.2 Radial Transverse Strengths and Hazard Beams.- 9.3 Tangential Transverse Strengths in Leaning Trees.- 9.4 Strengths in the Residual Walls of Hollow Trees.- 10 Cracks.- 10.1 Frost Cracks.- 10.2 Shear Cracks.- 10.3 Enclosed Bark.- 10.4 Hazard Beams.- 10.5 Ring Shakes.- 10.6 Grown Cracks on the Upper Sides of Branch Joints.- 10.7 T-Cracks.- 10.8 Drought Cracks.- 11 Final Remarks - Review and Outlook.- Reference.

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