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Words of the World


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Table of Contents

Preface ix

1 Introduction: the global language system 1

1.1 The global language system: a galaxy of languages 4

1.2 A historical atlas of the world as a language system 6

1.3 Supercentral constellations in the present language system 11

1.4 Scope and approach of this book 17

1.5 Plan of the book 20

2 The political economy of language constellations 25

2.1 Languages as 'hypercollective goods' 27

2.2 The communication potential of a language: the Q-value 33

3 Language, culture and the unequal exchange of texts 41

3.1 Texts as commodities in international exchange 42

3.2 Protectionism and free trade in cultural exchange 47

3.3 Monoglossia, polyglossia and heteroglossia 53

3.4 Discussion 57

4 India: the rivalry between Hindi and English 60

4.1 Characterization of the Indian constellation 61

4.2 State formation, nation-building and language unification 63

4.3 The vicissitudes of language policy in India 69

4.4 Discussion 73

5 The triumph of bahasa Indonesia 81

5.1 Gandhi's dream 81

5.2 The rise of Malay 83

5.3 The demise of Dutch 86

5.4 The rejection of Javanese 90

5.5 Discussion 93

6 Africa: the persistence of the colonial languages 96

6.1 A two-by-three comparison 99

6.2 Three francophone constellations south of the Sahara 102

6.3 Three English-centred constellations south of the Sahara 116

7 South Africa: the survival of the old language regime 127

7.1 The language regime under Apartheid 128

7.2 Language policy after Apartheid 132

7.3 The dynamics of the constellation 136

7.4 Discussion 140

8 The European Union: the more languages, the more English 144

8.1 Civil Europe (1): language unification in national constellations 146

8.2 Civil Europe (2): Q-values in the European Union 151

8.3 Institutional Europe (1): the public level 166

8.4 Institutional Europe (2): the bureaucracy 171

8.5 Discussion 173

9 Conclusions and considerations 176

9.1 Conclusions 177

9.2 Considerations 187

Notes 194

References 225

Index 244

About the Author

Abram de Swaan is Chairman of the Amsterdam School of Social Research (ASSR) at the University of Amsterdam.


"Abram de Swaan is the world's leading political sociologist of language. He has a profound knowledge of the complex history interlinking states and languages and an equally acute understanding of individual incentives to learn languages. Here he applies his insights and methods - with surprising results -- to globalization and its implications for the survival of world languages. Words of the World is both a pleasure to read and a remarkable contribution to political sociology." Professor David Laitin, Stanford University
"...de Swaan's view is original and rich to the extent that it sheds new light on this problem...De Swaan's analysis is definitely new and fruitful for an understanding of the relations of power and language" Anais Bokobza, European University Institute, Florence, Italy

"De Swaan's study is an impressive tour de force; it presents an original and refreshing social science perspective, is rich in empirical detail, rigorous in its theoretical elaboration, and written in an elegant and accessible style: a path-breaking study of language change and human communication in an age of globalisation." Johan Heilbron, Multilingual Matters

"...this book is an important contribution to our understanding of the relationship among languages of the world in the era of globalisation. It is a good addition to the growing body of texts used in increasingly popular courses on 'World English(es)'. Alamin Mazuri, The Ohio State University, USA

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